29th, April, 2010 IntroductionThe most important resource of an organization is the employee. The employees should have skills necessary for conducting specific responsibilities in the organization. In most cases, the employees gain the skills from education and training organizations such as universities, diploma level colleges and other training institutions. After employment however, there is need for continued training and development. There are two types of training and development. These are; training on the job and training off the job. Training on the job is the case where the employee is trained at the work place while off the job training is where the employee gets training outside the work place/external training institutions for example Universities (Sarin, 2006).
The two types of training and development have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper will cover the disadvantages and the advantages of both on job training and development and off job training and development. In order to fully understand the advantages and disadvantages of the two types of training and development, it is important to first understand what each type of training and development is and the techniques used.
The discussion will therefore explain the meaning of each type of training and development and describe the techniques used in each type. On Job Training and DevelopmentThis is a method of training where an organization uses knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees for example supervisors and managers to train the less knowledgeable, less experienced and less skilled employees (Dhaka, 2007). As noted earlier this type of training takes place in the work place. It is characterised by non-formal procedures or content and lack of well developed objectives at the beginning and during training.
The trainers have no specific qualification for the specific skills that the trainee needs to gain. They are always the most experienced and most knowledgeable in the organization but no consideration is given to their formal qualification or training experiences in relation to the training they are suppose to give the less knowledgeable, less skilled and less experienced employees (Dhaka, 2007). The following techniques are used in on job training and development: Job instruction techniqueMentoringJob RotationCoaching (Dhaka, 2007). Job Instruction Technique: In this technique, an employee is trained to have specific skills and knowledge on a specific job or specific jobs.
It focuses on the knowledge, skills and attitude development requiring the trainer to form a strategy. According Dhaka, job instruction technique involves planning, presentation of the plan, trial and follow up. Presentation is the process of presenting to the trainee what he/she requires for the job in terms of knowledge, skills and attitude (Dhaka, 2007). Job Rotation: People get employed, get promoted, get retrenched, sacked or retired. The last three cases provide spaces for other people to be employed.
In some organizations, positions are filled in internally which means recruiting an employee at a lower level to take on the space left by another employee due to retrenchment, retirement or promotion. This kind of recruitment is what is known as job rotation. A lower level employee is trained to take the position of another employee at a higher level (Dhaka, 2007).