IntroductionThis essay examines the vital processes involved when considering the introduction of electronic access control systems. The paper will also compare and contrast a variety of types of devices that are available at the moment. When examining the criteria involved, various theories of risk management will be taken into consideration, so as to come up with effective as well as up-to-date criteria that can help meet the demanding modern-day security needs. The definition of electronic access systems constitutes security components particularly based on issuing cards. Philip Purpura in the book: Security and Loss Prevention: An Introduction (2007) writes that controlling access to your premises is an important factor in physical protection, hence is the function of electronic access systems- to help manage the access of the premise anytime they feel like.
Access control systems are basically used to monitor and control access to areas such as offices, hotels, computers rooms, car parks, elevators, just to mention but a few (Purpura, 2007). Access control is an everyday phenomenon. A lock on all cars is a form of access control. A PIN on every person’s ATM at the bank is a means of access control.
Its possession is very important when a person seeks to control important, sensitive / confidential information as well as equipment (AOTEA electronic 2010). The main purpose of an electronic access control system is to allow or deny access to some area based on one or a combination of the following factors: What you have, what you know and who you are. The level of security desired determines what combinations of these factors are necessary and therefore what devices are chosen (Vellani, 2007). According to a recent article published in the Yale Law Review, there are essential criteria fundamental when considering to introduce electronic access systems; worth noting is that these criteria that are based on theories of defensible space, as established by Oscar Newman.
According to principles of defensible space, there are a number of design features that are fundamental when introducing particularly passive countermeasures such as electronic access systems as well as when introducing perimeter protection, functional planning, physical planning and hardening. (Hopper, 2007) Technological advancements have made organizations to rapidly revolutionalise their security needs, in their quest for security solutions that can provide the control and information to run efficiently thus providing a conducive environment for employees working within the organization (Hearnden & Moore, 1999).
So as to successfully implement their processes, the management is recommended to work hand in hand with the system integrator so as to develop different strategies that will reduce resistance (Norman, 2009). Natural SurveillanceThis is one of the most important principles of defensible space that one needs to mull over when considering to introduce electronic access systems.
This principle is a design theory that is focused on making intruders easily detectable. This concept is endorsed by various features that seek to capitalize on the visibility of people, building entrances as well as parking areas. For example, entrances and windows that have frontage on streets and parking areas, sufficient night-time lighting, sidewalks and streets that is pedestrian friendly and front porches. (Randall, 2008)