Essays on The Importance of Crowd Control in Evacuation Essay

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper “ The Importance of Crowd Control in Evacuation” is a comprehensive example of the essay on   management. The movement of a large number of people is critical when evacuating individuals from a building in an emergency. In a large crowd, there is a high risk of injury and even death due to the massive forces that are exerted on a single person by the surrounding crowd. Many cases of overcrowding and crushing during emergency situations have been reported. In a crowded environment, most individuals are injured or killed by the non-adaptive crowd behaviors of the crowd rather than the actual cause of the catastrophe.

Non-adaptive crowd behavior refers to the destructive actions that a crowd may experience in the event of a disaster, for example pushing others out of the way, stampede, knocking others down and stepping on others (Da Silva et al. 2003). Therefore, crowd control is increasingly becoming important in simulating the evacuation of a crowd in emergency situations. This paper will describe the best model in controlling crowds in emergency situations. Understanding the non-adaptive crowd behaviors is critical in the development of appropriate crowd control methods to ensure proper evacuation of people from the building in the event of an emergency (Musse 2000). Depending on the complexity of the emergency, simple or complicated behavior rules can be used to control the crowd.

This paper will develop a ViCrowd model to control the crowd using different types of crowd control methods. This will involve creating a programmed, autonomous, and guided control crowd (Garat et al. 1999). Developing a programmed crowd involves establishing pre-defined behaviors that individuals are supposed to exhibit in case of an emergency.

Creating an autonomous crowd involves defining behavior rules that are coming up with rule-based behaviors. Developing a guided crowd involves providing external control to guide crowd behaviors. These three ways of behavior control in-crowd must be used in combination for effective evacuation of the crowd during emergency situations. The guided method of crowd control reduces the average escape time and increases the chances of survival of individuals during an emergency situation.

References

Borgan DC. Et al. 1998 Dynamically simulating characters in virtual environments. In IEEE C.G.A., 18(5):58-69.

City of Cincinnati 1980 Crowd Management: Report of the Task Force on Crowd Control and Safety, Technical Report.

Da Silva A. et al. 2003. PetroSim-A framework to simulate crowds’ behavior in panic situations. International workshop on modeling and applied simulation, Bereggi, Italy.

Fire Safety Engineering Group 2003. Building Exodus: the evacuation Model for the Building Environment

Garat F. et al. 1999. Guiding and interacting with virtual crowds in real time. Proceedings of workshop Euro graphics computer animation and simulation. Milan, Italy

Greenwood, T. 1998 Guide to Fire Precautions in Existing Places of Entertainment and Like Premise, HMSO, London, (ISBN 0113409079)

Han, C.S., Kunz, J. and Law, K.H., 1998 “A Hybrid Prescriptive/Performance Based Approach to Automated Building Code Checking,” International Computing Congress, ASCE, pp. 537-548, Boston, MA.

Helbing, D., Farkas, I., and Vicsek, T. 2000 “Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic,” Nature, 407:487-490.

Jeffrey S. et al. 2007. Egress design solutions: a guide to evacuation and crowd management planning. John Wiley and Sons,

Lystad, M. 1988. Mental Health Response to Mass Emergencies: Theory and Practice, Brunner/Mazel, New York.

Musse SR 2000. Human Crowd Modelling with Various Levels of Behavior Control. PhD thesis, EPFL, Lausanne.

Musse SR. et al. 1997. A model of human crowd behavior: Group inter-relationship and collision detection analysis. Proc. Workshop of computer animation and simulation of Euro graphics, Budapest.

Musse SR. et al. 1998. Crowd modeling in collaborative virtual Environment. ACM VRST, Taiwan.

Schweiss E. et al 1999. An architecture to guide crowds based on rule-based systems. Autonomous Agents, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Still GK 2000. Crowd Dynamics. PhD thesis, Warwick University

Reynolds CW. 1999. Steering behaviors for autonomous character. Miller Freeman, San Francisco.

Thalmann D. and Musse SR. 2001. Hierarchical model for real time simulation of virtual human crowds. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 792):152-164.

Wooldridge M. and Jennings N. 1995. Intelligent Agents: Theory and practice. Knowledge Engineering Review, Cambridge University Press, 10(2).

Murakami Y. et al. 2003. Scenario description for multi-agent simulation. International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent systems, 369-376.

William H. and Jamie S. 2003. Emergency guidelines and procedures for employees. CCH Canadian Limited, Canada.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us