The paper “ E-Learning Theories and Its Emphasis” is a spectacular example of the literature review on education. Learning theories are usually portrayed as being optional accounts of the same phenomena as opposed to being perfectly compatible accounts of very different phenomena. As the understanding of e-learning matures, the appreciation of the importance of theory becomes deeper. Theory points out the direction in the educational outcomes. Learners in groups or communities as well as individuals have to be motivated to take responsibility for the attainment of their respective learning outcomes.
While e-learning tools grow to be powerful in capability, and global in regard to scope, it becomes feasible to redesign the educational enterprise as a way of empowering learners to be in charge reflectively of their learning. De Laat and Lally (2003) reiterate that positioning of learners who are empowered at the core of the process of e-learning will have a clear impact on the position of the educator but the evolvement of the position is not clear yet. It is clear that practice and theory have to be aligned within a workable and coherent educational model.
Whether collective or individualized in form, reflexivity in the social world is part of the stream comprising e-learning flows. Situative perspectiveThe social perspective in regard to learning has been enhanced from the re-conceptualization of all learning as being ‘ situated’ . In this perspective, a learner will usually be exposed to influences from social and cultural settings in which learning takes place which has an impact on the outcome of learning. This concept of learning looks at the distribution of knowledge socially. If knowledge is observed as situated in practices of the communities, then learning outcomes entails the abilities of individuals to take part in the very practices comfortably.
Beetham and Sharpe (2007) argue that emphasis is put on the successful practice patterns rather than components of subtasks analysis. This is an important connection to the theories of learning whereby cognitive and behavioral levels of analysis had been disjointed from the social. In both constructivist perspective and situated learning, the main assumption is that learning has to be personally meaningful and this is not defined with the informational character of the environment of learning.
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