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Essays on Each student will answer two of the following question in at least for pages: (Public Administration) Essay

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College E-government is a technological method that links the government and public via the internet. It is widely used in many municipalities in America. E-government has had a major impact on its various government bureaucracies. Among its impacts is the use of simple phone numbers memorable to the public to contact the government regarding any emergencies or alarms. The known and widely used numbers include 311 and 911. 911 is a phone number known to every citizen. During general emergencies for instance accidents and robberies, it is used. 311 on the other hand are a number used by citizens to contacts their municipalities’ government representatives.

Therefore, the government is able to solve public issues related to a particular county easily and faster. A member of the public, who calls 311, directly links to the responsible department according to the issue raised. This quick link involving government offices has led to the improvement of municipalities. The government also acquires vital information from the citizens in form of videos or images through 311. The public has placed high demands for services on the government regardless of them strongly opposing increased taxation.

Thus, E-government has helped Government bureaucracies efficiently deliver quality services to the public without increasing taxes. Government has saved on the cost of service production. Fewer clerks needed as back-office and front office workers; the use of E-government has saved on the costs of payment. Fewer clerks call for fewer support stuff for example; guards, messengers, office cleaners hence the money saved is put into more productive areas. Through E-government, reports that involve inspection such as health or building inspections happen online.

This has led to saving a lot of money for postage of the reports and handling. Online sending of these reports is fast, thus saving time. Instead of interacting much with the citizens, government workers engage in constructive work therefore increasing productivity of the government as a whole. E-government avoids unnecessary loss of the reports due to manual handling proving its efficiency. For instance, due to the E-government, the Budget Board of America noted a $508million saves. The government has also used the E-government to enhance security in a much easier and effective way.

Public surveillance cameras used in most cities and towns detect the activities going on in public areas such as parks, stalls, malls and supermarkets. With these, the government does not require a large number of police officers in these areas to keep an eye on things. Therefore, this has saved on the amount of money meant for payments. In addition, the cameras are a very accurate source of information to the government. In case of any illegal activities, reference to the cameras is easier and more efficient compared to information from eyewitnesses.

Hence, the government protects its citizens in a better way through E-government. From the above, it is clear that the positive impact of E-government on government bureaucracies is much and continues to improve the government’s work to its citizens. Under what circumstances can moral leadership be effective? (CH 10) Moral leadership is the ability to serve people and manage a given task uprightly. Most situations political, social or economical demand a moral leaders’ say to be effective. Among the many impacts moral leaders have, their major contribution is moving people into new directions.

The parties involved due to their values, easily accept their view on trending matters. Therefore, it is clear that moral leaders display their effectiveness in various circumstances. Moral leadership is effective when a leader requires support from the public. During campaigns, the upright leaders give speeches that actually move the public. Due to this, the members of the public pay attention and give into consideration opinions said resulting to them making serious decisions, for instance voting for a particular presidential candidate. Mass media has a major influence on public opinion, regarded as moral leaders of the society.

A case where mass media is involved, moral leadership is effective. Their opinions on issues attract a large number of the public convincing them to agree. In areas that require clarification, moral leadership comes in handy. In an occurrence of a dispute, the authority a leader has allows him or her to clarify matters and solve them easily. This is due to their trusted views on things. Other leaders at times get difficulties in making decisions involving heavy matters.

For instance, a president seeking advice from his or her political party requires aid from fellow leaders with morals. 4 Matters regarding the government, be it local or foreign, require an opinion from the president. As a moral leader, other leaders always take his view on most matters into account. Approval and implementation of policies is achievable through the decision of a moral president and fellow leaders involved. For example, between the years 1948 and 1964, the congress agreed upon more than half of the foreign presidential proposals. Success of many presidents especially in foreign policies is acceptable due to their leadership skills. Responsibility passed on to a certain department shows the effectiveness of moral leadership.

In view of impressive work done, a department can be awarded sole responsibility in running matters. This results from the government’s trust in the morality of the organization. On the other hand, moral leaders openly criticize companies known for unhealthy or unacceptable servicing to the public. The effect may not be large but the leader’s opinion will have influenced the public. For example, cigarette companies have rules but when the implementation of these rules fails, a moral leader comes in to criticize them.

In the business world, moral leadership is vital in decision-making. Entrepreneurs engage in a lot of risk taking endeavors that demand influence from a moral leader to engage in the risk. Leading business companies offer moral support to small beginners hence helping them undertake risks with little or no fear of business failure. From the above circumstances, it is clear that moral leaders have great influence in almost all areas of the society.

Reference 5 Verhoest, K., & Lagreid, P. (2010). Governance of public sector organizations: Proliferation, autonomy and performance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

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