Essays on Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Literature review

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The paper "Emotional Intelligence and Leadership " is a perfect example of a management literature review. Emotional intelligence is defined as the skill or ability to control, assess, and identify one's emotions as well as emotions of groups and other people. According to Salovey and Mayer (2003), emotional intelligence can also be defined as the ability or skill possessed by a person that enables him/her to perceive emotions, understand emotions, integrate emotions and regulate emotions in a way that the person achieves a great level of personal growth (Salovey and Mayer, 2003).

Goleman (1998) perceived emotional intelligence as comprising of an array of skills and competencies. In this regard, Goleman defined emotional intelligence as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Goleman, 1998). According to Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson (2008) leadership can be viewed as a process laden with numerous emotional events. The emotions experienced in the leadership process are also intertwined with social influence. George (2000) single out the four main types of leadership styles that include authoritarian, democratic, free rein, and toxic leadership styles. In an authoritarian style, the leader applies his emotional intelligence to control emotions and impulses from others because the leader relates with absolute authority which arouses emotions from the subordinates. In relation to the democratic style, the leader applies emotional intelligence to develop and inspire the subordinates because the leader allows the subordinates to participate in decision making.

In relation to toxic leadership, the leader applies emotional intelligence to sense, understand and react to emotions from others because the toxic leader abuses his leadership authority (Arvey, Rotundo, Johnson, Zhang & McGue, 2006). This is because the subordinates react negatively to the toxic leader’ s decisions which leave the organization and people worse-off With regard to the free reign style; the leader leaves the group or the subordinates to make the decision for themselves.

Hence, the leader applies emotional intelligence to control conflicts between the subordinates by controlling emotions and impulses that arise among the subordinates. 2. Petrides & Furnham (2000) held that emotional intelligence is a leadership trait that can be easily learned. Basing their argument on the four aspects of emotional intelligence that includes perceiving, reasoning, understanding, and managing emotions, the authors argued that emotional intelligence is not an inborn trait or strength and this it can be learned.

For example, a leader can learn how to perceive emotions from others by observing the facial expressions and nonverbal signs which depict signs of anger or disagreements. Additionally, the tone of the sound was also taken by the authors another way through which the leader can perceive emotions by learning. Furthermore, Kluemper (2008) held that emotional intelligence can be learned because the aspect of managing emotions which is a key competency of emotional intelligence requires the person to know how to respond appropriately to different and varied emotional situations as well as knowing how to regulate one's emotions when speaking to an emotional group (Arvey, Rotundo, Johnson, Zhang & McGue, 2006). In order to succeed leaders must have and do need emotional intelligence because they are faced with emotional situations on a daily basis.

Bradberry & Greaves (2009) noted that emotional intelligence is a key requisite to successful leadership because a leader must be able to manage emotions, understand emotions, reason out with different kinds of emotions as well as perceive and identify as they come in order to devise effective ways of dealing with emotions.


Arvey, R., Rotundo, M., Johnson, W., Zhang, Z., & McGue, M. (2006). The determinants of leadership role occupancy: Genetic and personality factors. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 1-20.

Bradberry, T. (2007). The Personality Code. New York: Putnam

Bradberry, T., and Greaves, J. (2009). Emotional Intelligence 2.0. San Francisco: Publishers Group West.

George J.M. 2000. Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence, Human Relations 53 (2000), pp. 1027–1055‏

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books

Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Ken; Johnson, D. (2008). Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Hoyle, J. (2005). Leadership and Futuring: Making Visions Happen. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.,

Kluemper, D.H. (2008), Trait emotional intelligence: The impact of core-self evaluations and social desirability. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(6), 1402-1412.

Lussier, R.N., & Achua, C.F., (2010). Leadership, Theory, Application, & Skill Development.(4th ed). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Mayer, J., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.

Petrides, K. & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313-320

Ryckman, R. (2004). Theories of Personality. Belmont, California: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Santrock, J. (2008).The Self, Identity, and Personality. In Mike Ryan(Ed.). A Topical Approach To Life-Span Development. (pg 411-412). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stanovich, K. (2009). What Intelligence Tests Miss: The Psychology of Rational Thought. New Haven (CT): Yale University Press.

Tapu, C. (2001). Hypostatic Personality: Psychopathology of Doing and Being Made. Ploiesti: Premier.

Turner, S. (2003). "Charisma Reconsidered," pp. 5-26 in Journal of Classical Sociology, 3:5, p. 6.

Van, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63, 182-196.

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