In general, the paper "Perspectives that Have Influenced Employment Relations over a Period of the Last Twenty Years" is an outstanding example of management coursework. The employment scene is very diverse and dynamic especially in relation to the parties that are at play in forming this relationship. The dynamism of this scenario has given rise to the concept of employment relations (ER) which has developed over a period of time. To begin with, ER is founded on the idea that it constitutes a legal and formal employment contract and it may also be seen as a psychological contract of unwritten rules.
This paper takes a focus on the perspectives that have influenced employment relations over a period of the last twenty years, in different areas of employment as well as in different countries. However, the focus is also given to the factors that are continually having an impact on employment relations. Specifically, we will focus on the roles that different states play in shaping the way employment relations are managed in different countries. Rogers (2012) argues that the government (state) plays a very important role in the ER since it acts as a regulator to the employer-employee relationship.
Therefore it is important for the state to be actively involved in regulating the practices of industrial relations in order to ensure that every party involved receives fair treatment. The state (or government) in this concept refers to a body that governs a country, republic or state and holds a political association. Employment relations (ER) best refer to the way employment relationships are managed by all parties involved in the relationship. The most important parties in this relationship are the employer and employee.
However, it may be expanded to include other parties such as labour unions and state governments. According to Waiganjo & Ng’ ethe (2012), the objective of employment relations is to ensure that the procedures followed in defining the rules of the game are efficient and fair enough. Industrial relations (IR) refer to a system where employees are collectively represented by a body or union, which interacts with their employers in a bid to establish and set the pace for how the employment relationship should be governed.
According to Kauffman (2010), the concept of Industrial relations is built on the understanding that the employment relationship is heavily influenced by political and economic factors. On the other hand, IR takes on a pluralistic perspective in the management of employment relations because different bodies are at play in generating solutions to the problems faced in the labour market. Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to the process involved in managing human capital with the aim of attaining organizational goals. HRM takes on a Unitarian perspective in the management of employee relations.
This is because HRM lays emphasis on the importance of integrating employees into the organization's strategy such that the organization is viewed as a harmonious entity where every party in the picture works to achieve a common goal. According to Muller (1999), HRM is has evolved over the last twenty years to become a very important subject in managerial practices worldwide. The question of whether the state should be actively involved in employment relations is rather contemptuous because different state governments have played different roles in shaping the ER in their countries.
As a result, different countries record different industrial relations systems (Collings, n.d). For instance in capitalistic countries, employers and labour unions have the freedom to determine their own actions but they have to follow the legislative requirements that the government sets. The scenario is different for countries where governments exercise autocracy and for countries that take on a communist approach. However, regardless of the system at play, it is hard to separate the government from the employment relations scene because it is the predominant employer in the public sector.
To begin with, the ER front has changed so much with time, moving from permanent employment to non-standard employment relations characterized by temporary, part-time and contractual work-based employment (Kalleberg, 2000). This can be attributed to the changes in the global economy, where competition has become so stiff and organizations and businesses (employers) alike are seeking to grow their profits and reduce their expenditure.