The paper 'Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life' is a great example of a Management Essay. Many at times we find ourselves talking with colleagues or family about how they were treated unfairly at their workplace by their boss or by their colleague. The concept of fairness is an important one as everybody at one point in life wants to be treated fairly. Organizational justice can be described as how employees perceive fairness and how they react to those perceptions in the context of the organization. There are three types of organizational justice namely: distributive justice, interactional justice, and procedural justice (Colquitt, 2001).
This essay will be discussing organizational justice, types of organizational just and then a discussion of a personal work experience that depicts social justice, and using the literature review, recommendations will be given. Distributive justice is based on Adam’ s equity theory and can be defined as perceived fairness by employees as regards to the input-output ratio as compared with the input-output ratio of others. According to the equity theory, employee’ s motivation is based on what they consider as being fair when they compare themselves with others.
He described inputs as what employees give towards their job and described outputs as what employees expect in return for their work input. Inputs basically refer to an employee’ s commitment, effort, skills, tolerances, determination, enthusiasm, hard work, personal sacrifice, and determination. Output on the other hand refers to all types of rewards including pay, benefits, bonus, pensions, perks, recognition, and responsibility, sense of achievement, promotion, reputation, training, and development. Adam described the people with whom people compare themselves with as referent.
Adam's theory of Equity goes beyond merely assessing inputs versus the output and considers the perspective that employees have when they compared themselves in regards to these two with their referent. Equity theory, therefore, helps us understand why pay alone is not the only determinant of motivation to employees (Jae-Young, Junyean, Dongchul & Surinder, 2004). In regards to how this theory applies in the workplace, employees seek to strike a balance between what they are putting into the job and what they are getting from the job.
In measuring the fairness balance, employees compare the balance of work input and the rewards they are getting for the same and compare the same with the balance enjoyed by their referent others. Therefore it means that with distributive justice, employees do not only compare the input-output ratio alone but they compare this ratio with the ratio of others who they consider as their referents. They form perceptions on what a fair ratio of inputs and outputs is when they compare their situations with those of other people that they consider as referent points.
This explains why employees are affected strongly by the situation of friends, partners, and colleagues in determining their own sense of equity or fairness. When employees perceive that their job inputs are fairly or equitably rewarded with the outputs, then generally, they are happier in the workplace and are motivated to continue putting more effort. On the other hand, when employees perceive that the input-output ratio is less beneficial or less attractive that the ratio of those they consider as their referent points, then the workers become demotivated in relation to the job and in relation to the employer (Fadil, Williams, Limpaphayom, & Smatt, 2005).
Jae-Young K, Junyean M, Dongchul H & Surinder T, (2004) "Perceptions of justice and employee willingness to engage in customer-oriented behavior", Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 18 Iss: 4, pp.267 – 275
Fadil, P.A., Williams, R.J., Limpaphayom, W., & Smatt, C. (2005) Equity or equality? A conceptual examination of the influence of individualism/collectivism on the cross-cultural application of equity theory. Cross Cultural Management, 12 (4), 17-36.
Bies, R. J. (2005). Are procedural justice and interactional justice conceptually distinct? In J. Greenberg & J. Colquitt (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 85-112). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mikula, G., Petal, B., & Tanzer, N. (2000). What people regard as unjust: Types and structures of everyday experiences of injustice. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 133-149.
Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 386–400.
Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions revealed: recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life. New York. Henry Holt & Company.