Essays on Word-of-Mouth as a New Element of Marketing Communication Mix Assignment

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Word-of-Mouth as a New Element of Marketing Communication Mix" is a great example of a Marketing Assignment. Communication plays an important role in making a business’ s marketing strategy successful. Without proper communication, a business’ s target group will not get to know about the products being manufactured and marketed by an entity. Bowie and Buttle (2007, p. 196) point out that in the marketing mix, communicating what the business has on offer is known as promotion. They state that other terms used to refer to promotion include promotional mix, communication mix or market communication mix.

Generally, marketing communication involves dialogue between a business and its current as well as potential customers. The dialogue may occur during pre-selling, selling or post-selling stages (Spotts, 2015, p. 55). Combining the different elements of communication in a bid to promote a product is what entails a marketing communication mix. According to Koekemoer and Bird (2004, p. 11), marketing communication is a blend of seven elements including advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, direct response marketing, public relations, New Media and sponsorship. For all these elements, effective message development determines the success of the marketing plan.

The message contained in the different elements does not only communicate the values of the organization, but it also helps inform the customers how a brand is different from others in the market (Koekemoer and Bird 2004, p. 11). As such, decisions about the message are the most important ones when designing a marketing communications mix. Marketing communication mix is part of the marketing P’ s, specifically the “ promotion. ” It entails every medium and approach to communication that businesses utilize with their target audience.

Marketing communication mix is an important component of an entity’ s marketing strategy since it determines the key aspects of sales and marketing (Holm 2006, p. 23) According to Gurău (2008, p. 169) marketing communication makes it possible for businesses to create customers by facilitating the passing of the business’ s value message into the market. Dahlen, Fredrik, and Smith (2010, p. 274) opine that the marketing communication mix is a combination of promotional tools that a business uses to communicate with its target audience. It entails all the efforts that a business entity makes to communicate with various stakeholders, including wholesalers, retailers, present consumers, potential consumers as well as the public at large (Holm 2006, p. 24). Decisions about the message are very important in the development of a marketing communication mix given the central role that the message plays in any form of communication.

The nature of the message often determines whether the targeted audience will react as intended by the message sender or not. This argument is supported by Van de Velde, Verbeke, Popp, & Van Huylenbroeck (2010, p. 5541) who state that people are very sensitive to the manner in which an entity presents information.

They point out that given the sensitive nature of the human audience, the decision about the message frame has the potential to influence the attitudes as well as behavioural intentions of the target audience. According to Van de Velde, Verbeke, Popp, & Van Huylenbroeck (2010, p. 5541), an entity wishing to communicate effectively to a given population should take into consideration the message frame in its communication.


Anderson, S. (2011). Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents. Tobacco Control, 20(Supplement 2), 1120-1128.

Berger, J. & Iyengar, R. (2013). Communication Channels and Word of Mouth: How the Medium Shapes the Message. J Consum Res, 40(3), 567-579.

Bowie, D. & Buttle, F. (2007). Hospitality Marketing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge, pp 196-220

Brennan, L. & Binney, W. (2010). Fear, guilt, and shame appeals in social marketing. Journal of Business Research, 63(2), 140-146.

Cacioppo, J. & Petty, R. (1979). Effects of message repetition and position on cognitive response, recall, and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 97-109.

Campbell, M. & Keller, K. (2003). Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects. J CONSUM RES, 30(2), 292-304.

Chen, Y. & Xie, J. (2008). Online Consumer Review: Word-of-Mouth as a New Element of Marketing Communication Mix. Management Science, 54(3), 477-491.

Constantinides, E. (2006). The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 22(3-4), 407-438.

Dahlén, M., Lange, F., & Smith, T. (2010). Marketing communications. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, pp 250-300

Dobele, A., Lindgreen, A., Beverland, M., Vanhamme, J., & van Wijk, R. (2007). Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally. Business Horizons, 50(4), 291-304.

Du, S., Bhattacharya, C., & Sen, S. (2010). Maximizing Business Returns to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Role of CSR Communication. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), 8-19.

Gallagher, B. & Kayler, K. (2009). Leading with Marketing: The Resource for Creating, Building and Managing Successful Architecture/Engineering/Construction Marketing Programs. AuthorHouse.

Goi, C. (2009). A Review of Marketing Mix: 4Ps or More? IJMS, 1(1).

Gunasekaran, S., Krishnadevarajan, P., & Lawrence, F. (2012). Sales and marketing optimization. [Washington, D.C.]: NAW Institute for Distribution Excellence.

Gurău, C. (2008). Integrated online marketing communication: implementation and management. JCOM,12(2), 169-184.

Hanafizadeh, P. & Behboudi, M. (2012). Online advertising and promotion. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference, pp 50-230

Holm, O. (2006). Integrated marketing communication: from tactics to strategy. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 11(1), 23-33.

Hyllegard, K., Ogle, J., & Yan, R. (2009). The impact of advertising message strategy – fair labour v. sexual appeal – upon Gen Y consumers' intent to patronize an apparel retailer. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 13(1), 109-127.

Ingram, T., LaForge, R., Avila, R., Schwepker Jr, C., & Williams, M. (2015). Sales Management. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, pp 122-160

Keller, K. (2009). Building strong brands in a modern marketing communications environment. Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2-3), 139-155.

Kent, M. (2008). Critical analysis of blogging in public relations. Public Relations Review, 34(1), 32-40.

Kirwan, J. (2006). The interpersonal world of direct marketing: Examining conventions of quality at UK farmers’ markets. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(3), 301-312.

Koekemoer, L. & Bird, S. (2004). Marketing communications. Lansdowne, South Africa: Juta Academic, pp 1-25

Kumkale, G., Albarracín, D., & Seignourel, P. (2010). The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(6), 1325-1356.

Lane, V. (2000). The Impact of Ad Repetition and Ad Content on Consumer Perceptions of Incongruent Extensions. Journal of Marketing, 64(2), 80-91.

Saxena. (2009). Marketing Management 4e. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Shankar, V. & Carpenter, G. (2012). Handbook of marketing strategy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Pub, pp 55-231

Singh, T., Veron-Jackson, L., & Cullinane, J. (2008). Blogging: A new play in your marketing game plan. Business Horizons, 51(4), 281-292.

Smith, T. (2014). Consumer Perceptions of a Brand's Social Media Marketing (Master's Thesis,). University of Tennessee, pp 1-20

Spotts, H. (2015). Creating and Delivering Value in Marketing. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp 55-100

Trimble, C. & Rifon, N. (2006). Consumer perceptions of compatibility in cause-related marketing messages. International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 11(1), 29-47.

Van de Velde, L., Verbeke, W., Popp, M., & Van Huylenbroeck, G. (2010). The importance of message framing for providing information about sustainability and environmental aspects of energy. Energy Policy,38(10), 5541-5549.

Wharton, C. (2014). Advertising: Critical Approaches (4th ed.). Routledge.

Winer, R. (2009). New Communications Approaches in Marketing: Issues and Research Directions. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(2), 108-117.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us