Disaster ManagementA disaster refers to severe interruption of the every day occurrences in a community or a commercial enterprise resulting in human, economic or environmental incapacitation that debilitates the ability of the distressed people or organization to survive. Humans have endeavored to lessen the impact of disasters through modeling approaches to disaster management. These models approach disaster management as related activities that start with mitigation of the vulnerability and negative blows of the adversity, preparedness for taking action, reaction to the disaster and provision of emergency relief, and finally assisting in recovery which encompass physical recreation and the capacity to restore normalcy to the business after the disaster.
To effectively respond to a disaster, information is critical. Availability of information enhances efficiency in detection, mitigation, preparation for, reaction to, and recovery from disasters. This is more critical at the response phase which is dynamic and real time. Reaction to adversities is dynamic and individuals tasked with the responsibility of making decisions should be kept informed of the most recent crisis condition. Additionally, response is time-critical with little or no allowance in decision making and reactive processes.
Consequently, difficulties or setbacks in information accessibility has harmful impact on the value of decision making and hence the effectiveness of the response operations. Disaster models are important in the management of any crisis because one, they make simpler, multifaceted incidents by assisting to differentiate between vital facets. Its practicality is more tangible when reacting to disasters with strict time limits. Two, contrasting real situations with a hypothetical model can lead to an improved comprehension of the present circumstances and can therefore aid the planning process and the broad completion of disaster management plans.
Three, availability of a disaster management model is an indispensable component in enumerating disaster events. Four, a documented disaster management model facilitates the establishment of a familiar pedestal of comprehension for all involved. It also permits improved integration of the relief and recovery efforts. Based on the fore going, a well defined and understandable model is greatly useful in the management of disasters because it makes possible the securing of support for disaster management endeavors. Hence, disaster management calls for a recognized system, or a model, to handle and possibly reduce the negative consequences of a disaster.
Disaster management models are categorized into the following main classes: logical, integrated, causes and others. Existing disaster management representations fit into one of these classes. For this paper, the focus lies on the integrated disaster management model. The conventional process of disaster management consists of two stages; pre-disaster risk-reduction and post-disaster recovery stages. Pre-disaster risk-reduction consists of activities such as preventing, mitigating and preparation while the post-disaster recovery stage incorporates the activities of response, recovery and rehabilitation.
Integrated models differentiate the phases of a disaster by the development of functions such as tactical preparation and observation. In this model, components are related as episodes and actions. In integrated disaster management model related episodes and actions are organized to ensure their effective and efficient execution. This model is has four main components; hazard assessment, risk management, mitigation, preparedness.