Essays on Management of Diversified Workforce and Sustained Competitive Advantage Literature review

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The paper 'Management of Diversified Workforce and Sustained Competitive Advantage" is a good example of a management literature review.   The 21st-century  business organizations are increasingly embracing diversity at the workplace for a variety of reasons. This has been made possible by globalization and the advancement in technology that has made the world a global village (Okoro & Washington, 2012). The diversity is reflected in a variety of attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnic background, religion, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, physical appearance and ability as well as generation (Okoro & Washington, 2012).

This has also been propagated by the changes in population demographics that result from immigration, increases single parenthood, and increased health leading to a corresponding increase in the number of aging population at the workplace. As workforce diversity increases, there is pressure on the business to absorb more diversified workforce so as to enjoy the accruing benefits that come along with it such as fully exploring the market and reducing the cost of outsourcing. The aim of this paper is to explore how the management of a diverse workforce can contribute to organizations sustained competitive advantage and meet the needs of the employees as well.

The paper will focus on the literature review on managing diversity in the workforce by evaluating the arguments on HRM’ s role in the same. An organization with a diversified workforce shall then be chosen and one diverse group further looked into. Literature Review of the Management of Diversified Workforce Human resource management has been charged with the role of managing people in organizations. HRM then plays a role in managing the diversity of the workforce through various activities.

HRM has a set of processes and functions that are meant to attract, direct, and maintain the human resource of the organization. Most managers regard diversity management as a chance for equal opportunity for any person regardless of their background to be part of the organization (Rahman, 2013). Most HRM in organizations has been effective in hiring minorities and women to reflect the increasingly diverse market networks as well as win more customers. When making the selections the HR managers have to use a selection criterion that favors workforce diversity in the organization (Noor, Khalid, & Rashid, 2013).

The traditional skill and competency-based selection criterion has long been dumped by various HR managers as this does not bring in the efficient workforce (Okoro & Washington, 2012). As a result, the workforce has much been selected based on broadened stable attributes and competencies thus making the HRM be against workforce diversity (Rahman, 2013). Babalola & Marques (2013) observe that, through succession planning, the management is able to discriminate against the other employees choosing the best employee the management feels has the best attributes instead of focusing on the diverse groups being represented. HRM practitioners use diversity training in managing a diversified workforce.

Diversity training and management development have formed the discussion in most professional HR debates (Okoro & Washington, 2012; (Noor et al. , 2013)). In the UK public sector diversity training is regarded as a way of offering individuals with equal chances to get ahead (Rahman, 2013). Through diversity training, the workforce is taken through the process of understanding the socio-economic, cultural, racial, and religious differences among the workforce and how to effectively embrace these differences for a better and effective work environment (Okoro & Washington, 2012).

Through this, the minority groups in the workplace are integrated into the workplace through inculcating of skills, motivation and knowledge to work effectively and freely thus productivity. Through this training, the employees are able to respond to the diversified customer base as well (Babalola & Marques, 2013). Due to mobility of the workforce in the twenty-first century, the HR managers should be highly educated on diversity training so as to increase their level of interaction with people from different background and further initiate the employees into doing the same (Noor et al. , 2013).

The training could be skill-based that is centered on behavior change or awareness based that covers the knowledge of the employees and their sensitivity to some diverse issues at the workplace.


Babalola, S. S., & Marques, L. 2013, “Integrated Approach to Workplace Diversity through Human Resource Management”. Journal of Social and Development Sciences, 4(9), 435-445.

Bhattacharyya, D. (2010). “Cross-cultural Management: Texts and Cases”. New Delhi: PHI Learning Ldt.

Dudovsky, J. 2012, September 12, “Virgin Atlantic Airlines: employee motivation, leadership and organizational culture”. Retrieved from

Kamal, Y., & Ferdousi, M. M. 2009, “Managing Diversity at Workplace: A Case Study of hp”. ASA University Review, 3(2), 157-170.

Kirton, G., & Greene, A. M. 2010, “The dynamics of managing diversity: A critical approach”. Burlington: Elsevier.

Noor, A. M., Khalid, S. A., & Rashid, N. R. 2013, “Human Resource Diversity Management Practices and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Conceptual Model”. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(8), 301-308. doi:10.6007/IJARBSS/v3-i8/144

Okoro, E. A., & Washington, M. C. 2012, “Workforce Diversity and Organizational Communication: Analysis of Human Capital Performance and Productivity”. Journal of Diversity Management, 7(1), 57-62.

Rahman, H. 2013, “Effects of Workforce Diversity on Human Resource Management: A Theoretical Perspective”. Asian Academic Research Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 1(12), 61-70.

Roberson, Q. 2013, “The Oxford Handbook of Diversity and Work”. New York: Oxford University Press.

Virgin Atlantic. 2015, “Diversity & CSR | Virgin Atlantic Careers”. Retrieved from

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