Essays on How Nutrition before and during Early Pregnancy Affects Birth Outcome Assignment

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The paper "How Nutrition before and during Early Pregnancy Affects Birth Outcome" is a great example of a finance and accounting assignment. A proper  and balanced diet is always important more so in pregnant women. Although the diet of pregnant women is the same as that in adult but with some restrictions and supplementations. Studies showed that fetal growth is associated with maternal diet, however, there is no epidemiological evidence of how maternal growth is influenced by the diet. During pregnancy itself, it is important to consider the well-being and maternal health, the health of the newborn baby, and the welfare of the mother’ s ability to provide adequate care and proper nutrients.

One study showed that maternal diet is an important determinant in fetal growth and placental weight. But other study reveals that the effects of maternal diet are not much appreciated in industrialized countries than it is in developing countries. The fetal weight of 3.1 – 3.6 kg serves as the basis of having optimum maternal and fetal outcomes. Lower birth weight can be associated with higher mortality and morbidity, as well as increased risk of diseases later in life.

While the effects of some micronutrients such as iodine in pregnancy have been long recognized other vitamins and minerals have just become recently appreciated. It is the objective of this paper to bring about and compare different micronutrients taken before and during pregnancy and how can these affect the outcome of birth based on several studies. DIFFERENT VITAMINS AND MINERALS AND ITS EFFECTS IN THE OUTCOME OF BIRTH Iron International and national bodies have recommended the use of iron in pregnant women. It seemed that it has been made a part of the standard of care during pregnancy.

Lack of iron results in anaemia which could be very fatal if there are complications in giving birth such as haemorrhage. Supplemental intake of iron shows an increase in iron reserves and reduces anaemia. A trial study for the use of iron as supplemental during pregnancy in a developing country showed a marked reduction in fetal loss and neonatal mortality.  



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Black, R.E. 2001. British Journal of Nutrition. Micronutrients in Pregnancy. 85, Suppl. 2, S193-S197.

Matthews, F.; Yudkin, P.; Neil, A. 1999. Influence of Maternal Nutrition on Outcome of Pregnancy: Prospective Cohort Study.

Williamson, C.S. Briefing Paper: Nutrition in Pregnancy.

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