The paper "Organizational Culture and Its Principal Manifestations" is a great example of management coursework. Elements of the organization not only define its culture but also shape and change culture. “ It is a pattern of basic assumptions that a group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptations and internal integration” (E. H Schein, 1986). Manifestations of organisational culture Symbols It involves the participation of objects, acts, events or qualities serving as a vehicle for conveying meaning to the internal and external environment. Stories These are narratives which are based on true events, which may be injected and highlight intended values and culture. Rites These are more elaborate, dramatic, planned sets of activities intended to convey cultural values to participants. Ceremonials The rites systems performed in conjunction with a single occasion or event called ceremonials. Changing organisational culture Because they involve fairly stable values, beliefs and assumptions, organizations can be difficult to change. Changing culture approach Surfacing actual norms Articulating new directions Establishing new norms Identifying culture gaps Closing culture gaps Internal and external environments Analysing environmental conditions Dynamism It is the rate and predictability of change in the elements of an organisation’ s environment. Environmental bounty It is the extent to which the environment can support sustained growth and stability Managing environmental elements Three approaches to managing the environment: Adaptation Involves changing internal operations & activities to make the organisation and its environment more compatible Buffering Stockpiling either input into or outputs from, a production or service process to cope with environmental fluctuations Smoothing Taking actions aimed at reducing the impact of fluctuations, given the market Forecasting Predicting changing conditions & future events that significantly affect an organisation’ s business Rationing Providing limited access to a product or service in high demand Favourability influence It involves trying to alter environmental elements to make them more compatible with the organisation’ s needs. Advertising & public relations Boundary spanning Recruiting Negotiating contracts Coopting Strategic alliances Trade associations Political activity Domain shifts Changing the product/service mix to create a favourable interface for stakeholders It is about moving out of a current product, service or geographic area into a more favourable domain. It is about the expansion of current domains through diversification or expansion of products/services offered. Promoting innovation Strategic Focused on identifying opportunities Commitment to seize opportunities Willing to make major, fast changes Commitment of resources Many stages with risk assessed for each stage Control of resources Rental or outsourcing of resources for flexibility Management structure Few levels, with informal communication How leaders influence cultural change Crisis identification Communication of a new vision The motivation of key staff Corresponding strategy Conclusion Organizational culture is dynamic and interpretive.
It constantly shapes and defines the performance of an organization. Introduction Culture Culture is a term which can not be expressed distinctly, but it is a thing which we can easily sense. We can easily distinguish the culture and environment of a university from a hospital. It is similar to sensing the personality of a person, dressing, mannerism and communication style tells a lot about personality. It is the personality of the organization, comprised of assumptions, values and artefacts of the organization’ s member and their behaviors.
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