FIRE SAFETY(Means of Escape, Warnings, and Building Regulations)Introduction“Fire prevention is a major aspect of a total fire protection program” (Davletshina 1998). Well-organized fire prevention activities can save lives and millions of dollars by preventing the destructiveness of fire. Fire safety inspections in the workplace may help produce a fire safe working environment. They are conducted to evaluate the attempt being made to control and reduce plant or factory fire hazards. Our research will focus on the on significance of identifying fire risks in the workplace. It will attempt to explain the principles of means of escape throughout a building and methods of warning people when an outbreak occurs.
More importantly, it will explain why buildings are built in accordance with the Building Regulations in the United Kingdom. Fire SafetySignificance of Fire Risk AssessmentFire is the most intricate physical phenomenon happening in nature covering all field of scientific study such as thermodynamics, reaction chemistry, combustion, and fluid mechanics, to mention a few (Rasbash et. al. 2004, p. 255)A Fire Risk Assessment is a review of the workplace and work activities to identify how probable a fire is to start, where it would start, how critical it its effect, people and property that would be affected and how people can escape or get out of the building safely in an emergency.
It is a planned way of looking at the danger and probability linked with fire and the products of fire (Perry 2003, p. 24). Workers must be safe in the workplace. Laws, regulations, and policies require it. Inspectors and administrators should regularly evaluate workplace safety by walking around and looking for cables traversing walkways, unsafe equipment position, lack of safety equipment in areas such as loading docks, overloaded electrical connectors, unsafe elevators, and many more.
Good management of fire safety is indispensable to guarantee that fire is unlikely to happen. However, if they arise, they are expected to be neutralized or suppressed rapidly, efficiently and securely. Given that fire does occur and escalate, every person in the building will be able to escape to a place of absolute safety smoothly and swiftly. Fire risk assessment helps us make sure that buildings and structures fire safety procedure, fire prevention measure, and fire precautions are sufficient and functioning appropriately (Odpm 2005).
Means of EscapeThere are in most cases legislative requirements for the provision of escape routing in all but the extremely undemanding single-story structures. Such requirements are based on the theory of the maximum length of escape route to a safe place, be it an exterior fire door or a protected fire-escape stairwell. The maximum lengths are based on the kind of occupancy and are reliant on the means of escape, whether along a hallway or through the fire compartment.
There are also requirements on the total quantity of fire-escapes and the size of escape routes which are usually functions of the building type, the quantity of people likely to be within the premises at any given time and the potential mobility of these people. The escape routes are dimensioned to provide a comprehensive evacuation from the fire compartment into either a protected area or the exterior of the structure in some 2-5 minutes with a basic travel velocity on staircases of roughly 150 persons per minute per metre width of escape route.
It should nevertheless be accepted that staircases are built in discrete widths that doubling the staircase width will not double the throughput, as an individual person requires finite space, and the minimum widths have to be specified. The historical background for imposing requirements on escape routes and evacuation according to Purkiss (1996) is from a string of devastating fires over a period of some fifty years from 1881, when a theatre fire in Vienna was accountable for some 450 people being killed, to a fire in Coventry in 1931.
A lot of the background to present legislation in the UK is given in a Ministry of Works Report (1952) which was based on then current international system. All escape routes must also be lined with non-flammable, non-toxic material. It should be recognized that the fire doors opening on to escape routes might have lesser fire resistance performance requirement than the structure itself, because they are only required to be efficient in the very early phases of the fire where foremost concern is with evacuation rather than structural strength.
The provision of a sufficient means of escape is therefore essential to the design of new buildings, and to the modification, change of use or expansion of existing buildings.