18th May, 2008.AbstractFloods have been one of the most catastrophes in the human life that has posed a great challenge to both the governments and the communities as a whole. From one end of the world to the other floods have continued to destabilize the lives of people with some places being worst affected by floods. Lives have been lost, property destroyed and some places become totally inhabitable due to floods. Floods have been caused by a number of factors some of them controllable and others uncontrollable. For example floods caused by overflow of rivers can easily be controlled if the required pre-planned measures are taken into consideration.
This may include construction of dyke's on or before the onset of the rains. Floods that result from natural catastrophes such as Hurricane Katrina in the United States are more difficult to control because their magnitude and effects are far reaching. It is therefore up to the necessary authorities to keep the public aware of the various climatic changes and the possible occurrence of such floods so that the public can escape the destruction from such floods.
The research below is aimed at analyzing the flood rescue methods available, the various methods that will be used in carrying out this research and the methodology of carrying out the study. It will also stipulate how the data collected is to be analyzed. IntroductionVarious flood rescue methods have been stipulated by different bodies across the globe each depending on the risks involved. According to Steve (2007) there are basic rules of flood rescue methods which must be observed by every one working around or in the water.
This includes the use of flotation devices and a helmet to ensure safety for the person involved in rescue activities. Appoint upstream spotters which enables the rescuer to spot any debris or logs of wood floating in the flooded region. This ensures that rescuers lives are not endangered by the floating trees. A rescuer must maintain a priority of safety that is self, team, public, victim and lastly property. This ensures that onlookers do not approach undercut banks which might collapse and cause deaths to the public.
Down stream safety are also very necessary just like the upstream spotters. They keep an eye on any one who might accidentally enter the river and provide throw bags to rescue such people. Low risk methods should be used first and they should be increased if the rescue situation becomes more risky to undertake. Griffin 2006, observes that yelling is the lowest risk method which is aimed at telling the victim what to do. It could mean directing the victims to a safer place until a team of experts arrives.
Another low risk rescue method given by Griffin is reaching which means that the rescuer has to work near the waters edge. He/she can use reach aids such as paddles, sticks, tools or inflated fire hoses. Munich (1999) observes that rescue methods include contact rescues, swimming, snatch rescues and tethered lowers. This method of rescue according to him demands that the rescuer undergo a thorough training to have a high water confidence level. The most high risk option available in flood rescue methods is the use of the helicopters as well as the swift water/flood rescue training.
This and many other literatures are some of the methods used by various rescue bodies in their rescue operations. The aims of this research is therefore to investigate the best flood rescue methods that can be used even in high risk operations, their effectiveness, risks involved, to establish a stable and long lasting techniques and flood rescue methods that can be used with minimum risks regardless of the magnitude and size of the floods. The key research questions include, why are floods still a big problem in many countries across the world?
What are some of the rescue methods that have been used in different parts of the world? How effective have they been in terms of the number of human lives that have been saved and the property that has been rescued? Do the flood rescue methods depend on the intensity of the floods, size and the magnitude? Have there been occasions where flood rescue methods have completely failed to achieve the intended purposes of saving the human lives and property? The questions stated above will be answered in the result and findings part of this research.
The methodology to be used in carrying out this research is the topic that comes next. Among the things that will be investigated here are the tools for carrying out this research, most appropriate methods of data collection and their effectiveness as well as other methods that can be used to carry out a similar research but will not be used in this topic.