The paper 'Forms of Effective Communications' is a great example of a business case study. Organizations and businesses working to maintain sustainability will seek to ensure relevant stakeholders' concerns and sustainable issues are well understood and acted upon. Many issues of sustainability are very complex. Therefore, it is recommended for the organizations to work with relevant stakeholders to understand these issues, especially if they are relevant to the organization. One of the major issues that enhance sustainability in organizations is ethics in communication (Woiceshyn, 2011). This is enhanced by ensuring good marketing, public relations, advertising, and other forms of effective communications that show the sustainability of values and ethics. Ethics of communication is a virtue that declares the increment of profit as the social sustainability of a business.
Corporate officers lack any obligation to support social issues. Social issues referred to in this context are hiring the unemployed and reducing pollution beyond what the law requires of them. Economists state that the sole task of an organization should be limited to profit maximization for stakeholders. This is, however, subject to laws that ensure free and open competition without fraud or deception.
Hence, marketing, operations management, and finance are ethical instructions needed for a business career. According to Wilhelm and Czyzewski, activities such as sponsoring social organizations and supporting arts are not mandatory. However, they are justifiable when they improve an organization's image. This is on the ground that a good image is a promise of long-term profitability and sustainability of the business (Wilhelm & Czyzewski, 2012). 2. Ethical Behavior in a management context and line with course contentsEthical behaviors are principles that govern operations in an organization.
The principles promote good values such as trust, kindness, fairness, and good behaviors. To have a smooth running in an organization, ethical guidelines that favor its objectives should be formulated. When people working in an organization conform to Business Ethics and Virtue Ethics, they increase their likelihood of achieving their goals and objectives. To be successful, businesses need to espouse virtues that are based on reality. Business and Virtue Ethics provide a context of strategic plans and tactics of attaining the stated mission and goal in a business (Ferrell, Thorne & Ferrell, 1998). Various scholars in their different articles have explored the significance of Business Ethics and Virtue Ethics.
They have identified how virtues and values have been translated into social responsibilities in organizations. They have also indicated that virtues facilitate successful cooperation and management that enable companies and organizations to run successfully (Collins, 2009). One of the examples of nonethical behavior in organizations that demean their objectives is a conflict of interest. This is a situation whereby business administrators lack transparency and accountability about the organization's objectives and other individuals.
Their roles lead them to make inappropriate decisions that highly affect an organization negatively. 3. Types of organizational controls and systems found in contemporary management Organization control and systems are management roles that are tailored towards attaining goals and objectives in an organization. Organizations should, therefore, enhance effective control systems that share common characteristics with their objectives. Several organization control is required in a business to enhance its success, some of which are concurrent control. This is a situation whereby management takes the initiative to monitor the ongoing activities of their employees to enhance the consistency of quality work.
This control relies on rules, performance, and regulations that guide employees’ activities. Feedback control is another type of organization control that reviews information to ensure an organization meets its established goals. It allows organizations to monitor their profits every month to ensure profit maximization goals are reached. On the other hand, there are various types of organizational control systems, which include; availability of the required information. This is a situation whereby an organization provides the needed information on projects required in an organization and their cost.
Another type of organization control system is focusing on the main points by the management. This is enhanced by addressing areas in an organization that highly leads to the success of the business. Lack of good organizational control and systems leads to rising moral issues between employees and employers (Aultman, 2008). These issues include discrimination, harassment, and underpayment of the employees. All these are business practices that have raised controversies in society concerning good ethics. Many businesses worldwide engage in decisions and practices that favor their goal of maximizing profit and minimizing cost.
4. Compare and contrast the Contingency approaches to leadership, giving examples to illustrate. The contingency approach to leadership is a style that deals with finding the best match between situations and their role. The contingency theory of leadership states that successful leadership is a function of various contingencies in tasks and other variables. Situations contingently impose the effectiveness of various patterns of leadership behaviors. Therefore, different styles of leadership are caused by different situations in an organization.
Contingency theory indicates that leadership styles can be relationship motivated or task motivated. Leadership-motivated leaders are highly concerned with developing a close relationship with their employees and other subordinate staff in an organization. Therefore, the leader-member relationship refers to the atmosphere in an organization that increases the loyalty, confidence, and attraction of workers to their leaders (Arel, Beaudoin & Cianci, 2012). On the other hand, task-motivated leaders are mainly concerned with attaining objectives and goals in an organization. These goals are primarily maximizing profit and minimizing cost. The task structure of these leaders refers to the requirement of clear tasks that need to be accomplished within a stipulated time.
This is by demonstrating clear paths to the success of the business. The contrast between contingency approaches to leadership is that they show their effectiveness in various situations (Collins, 2009). This is because they always focus on their orientation regardless of whether conditions are favorable or unfavorable. 5. Organizational change that moves organization from a product to customer-orientedIf I had the responsibility to oversee organizational change that would move the organization from product to customer-oriented, I would enhance professionals and management staffs that portray moral courage and understand their roles and responsibilities in their workplace.
This is because moral courage is the foundation upon which ethical actions are based in professions. In the case of morally responsible managers, they have the capabilities of recognizing and responding to unethical values to provide quality services to their customers. Codes of ethics in their profession guide the foundations of quality services and responsibilities. Familiarity with these practices will allow managers and other subordinate workers in an organization to question actions and practices in their workplaces which they believe do not work to the interest of their customers (Lachman, 2009). Ethical principles and professional codes of ethics are important in guiding actions that are sufficient in providing better services to customers in an organization.
This is because moral ideas are required to facilitate individual’ s obligations in their workplace. Besides, managers should have a moral commitment that makes them offer quality services to their customers. This can be enhanced through holding virtues such as compassion, faithfulness, love, and sympathy in their working environment.
Therefore, managers who perform their duties under moral courage are always committed to the welfare of their customers regardless of their individual risk. Additionally, the responsibilities of morally courageous managers are to ensure the success of their customers and that of the organization. They offer all these services despite ethical problems they encounter in their workplace (Lynton & Lyndall, 2000). 6. What management entailsManagement in organizations or business entities entails a board of directors who shareholders entrust with running the business because they have the required expertise.
Management should hire temporary workers and upgrade old machines in the firm to lower the cost of input. Additionally, they should also ensure the optimal parts kept on the shelf have the capacity to sustain demand in the product market and give optimal profit. In all business circles, the firm’ s management should also look over shareholders’ interests. This is to maximize shareholders’ value by engaging in decisions that facilitate the firm's rise of value and economic growth (Arel, Beaudoin & Cianci, 2012). To have an efficient financial and product market, stock prices should be addressed because it holds the present and future information of the firm.
This implies that the great performance of a firm’ s management should be focused on and reflected in price stock. Therefore, every decision made by the management should address the firm's stock prices in the financial market. This is to maximize profits, thus reflecting the growth of the economy. The management should also embark on decisions that lower the cost of the input in a firm. This is to increase profit margin, which is achieved when inputs are lower while stock prices increase.
Arel, B., Beaudoin, C., & Cianci, A. (2012). The Impact of Ethical Leadership, the Internal Audit Function, and Moral Intensity on a Financial Reporting Decision. Journal of Business Ethics, 109 (3), 351-366.
Aultman, J. (2008). Moral Courage Through a Collective Voice. American Journal of Bioethics , 8 (4), 67-69.
Collins, D. (2009). Essentials of Business Ethics: Creating an Organization of High Integrity and Superior Performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Ferrell, O. C., Thorne, L. D., & Ferrell, L. (1998). The Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations: A Framework for Ethical Compliance. Journal of Business Ethics, 17 (4), 353-363.
Lachman, V. (2009). Ethical Challenges in Health Care: Developing Your Moral Compass. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Lynton, J. S., & Lyndall, T. M. (2000). Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility. Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Wilhelm, W. J., & Czyzewski, A. B. (2012). Ethical Reasoning Instruction In Undergraduate Cost Accounting: A Non-Intrusive Approach. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 16 (2), 131-142.
Woiceshyn, J. (2011). A Model for Ethical Decision Making in Business: Reasoning, Intuition, and Rational Moral Principles. Journal of Business Ethics, 104 (3), 311-323.