The paper 'Knowledge, Innovation and Cultural Change - SPC& D " is a good example of a management case study. From the case study, the executive management, on a return from a retreat where possible solutions to challenges facing SPC& D were discussed, called a meeting where they outlined the company goals for the next three to five years to the senior management. This means that the executive managers did not consider the perceptions or opinions of the senior managers when formulating the goals to be followed in the company. In most organizations, senior managers are in a better position to understand and even formulate solutions to the problems facing a company since they are closer to the employees than the executive managers are.
The lack of consultation therefore suggests that the executive managers lack an appreciation of the hierarchical structures in SPC& D. According to Ekaterini (2011, p. 563), the ability to think strategically, champion change, and foster innovation sit at the core of middle-level managers’ competencies. By ignoring the lower-level managers’ contribution to goal formulation, the executive managers at SPC& D would be creating an environment where lower-level managers would just be working with an aim of accomplishing set goals, without having a sense of association or ownership with the organisation.
For managers to work towards enhanced personal effectiveness or performance, Ekaterini (2011, p. 563) observes that they would need to know the organisation they work in, establish plans, use sound judgments, and have the capacity to influence others and therefore drive results. In cases where dictatorial-like goals are issued by the executive management without due consideration being paid to the opinions or input of other lower-ranked managers, their sense of owning the same goals is eroded and therefore their motivation towards achieving the same goals may not be optimal. By calling a meeting where the organisational goals were issued, the executive management in SPC& D demonstrates the authoritarian type of leadership.
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