The paper "Key Arguments for and against the Existence, Role and Importance of a Total Global Strategy for SMEs " is a great example of management coursework. This essay is a review of literature about the key issues that have been written about the existence, role and importance of total global strategies in international business operations. The issues discussed include globalisation and the debate around the phenomenon. By discussing concepts such as standardisation and adaptation with respect to the operations of international businesses in a globalised world, the essay provides an overview of the different strategies that such business can use.
The ‘ total global strategy’ is also discussed along with its role and significance to different types of businesses. It is noted that larger international businesses such as Coca-Cola and McDonalds are better placed to adopt the ‘ total global strategy’ as compared to small businesses. Keywords: globalisation, total global strategy, standardisation, adaptation, international business. Introduction Globalisation is a widely discussed subject. In particular, part of the discussion is in relation to how the phenomenon of globalisation relates to the operations of both small and large international businesses.
From the point of view what globalisation entails, there is no doubt that businesses that operate internationally need to consider the effects of globalisation on their operations. To position themselves appropriately, international firms have to evaluate themselves in terms of whether their products or service need to be standardized meet needs that are perceived to be uniform across the world or to adapt their operations so as to suit the different needs on different parts of the world. As well, organizations can choose to adopt a mix of having uniform products in some cases and adapting some operations in certain cases to meet people’ s different needs in different locations.
Ultimately, the decision on the approach to be pursued by an organization depends on the industry in which the organization is operating. Having a ‘ total global strategy’ has been regarded as a means through which firms can mix standardisation and adaptation of their operations based on the conditions set by the market and industry. However, there are different views from different authors and scholars in regard to the existence, role as well as the importance of having a ‘ total global strategy’ . Based on the background information above, the purpose of this essay is to review the key issues that have been written about the existence, role and importance of total global strategies in international business operations.
The essay will review the debate on the topic of globalisation and how globalisation affects the operations of international businesses. Different views that have been given in support of or against the existence, role and significance of a ‘ total global strategy’ for firms will be discussed. The globalisation debate and international business operations Globalisation is a concept whose definition is complex because of the range of issues that it entails.
According to Johnson and Turner (2003, p. 4), economists, sociologists, political scientists, lawyers, anthropologists and other groups of people have all debated the meaning of globalisation based on the contexts of their disciplines. For instance, in terms of economics, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has coined the phrase “ Economic globalisation” , which it defines as “ the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through the movement of goods, services, and capital across borders” (paragraph 9).
The IMF also notes that globalisation may as well refer to the movement of knowledge (technology) and people (labour). Closely related to these definitions is that definition given by Sorge, Noorderhaven and Koen (2015, p. 13) that globalisation involves the production as well as the distribution of services and products of a homogenous form and quality across the world. The definition of globalisation as given by Sorge, Noorderhaven and Koen (2015) can be related to the prediction made by Theodore Levitt in his May 1983 article.
In the article cited by among others Sutherland and Canwell (2004, p. 103), Levitt suggested that as new technology increased the reach of global media and lowered the cost of communicating between different regions, consumer tastes would become harmonized, thus creating global markets that would be served by standardized products.
Ang, Z & Massingham, P 2007, ‘National culture and the standardization versus adaptation of knowledge management’, Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 5-21.
Cambell, D, Stonehouse, G & Houston, B 2002, Business strategy: an introduction, 2nd edn, Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, MA.
Codita, R 2011, Contingency factors of marketing-mix standardization: German consumer goods companies in Central and Eastern Europe, Springer, Heidelberg.
de Mooij, M & Hofstede, G 2002, Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior: implications for international retailing, Journal of Retailing, vol. 78, pp. 61- 69.
de Mooij, M 2000, ‘The future is predictable for international marketers: converging incomes lead to diverging consumer behaviour’, International Marketing Review, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 103-113.
de Mooij, M 2003, ‘Internet and culture’, in CE Barfield, G Heiduk & PJJ Welfens (eds), Internet, economic growth and globalization: perspectives on the new economy in Europe, Japan and the US, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 109-130.
Dicken, P 2011, Global shift: mapping the changing contours of the world economy, 6th edn, The Guilford Press, New York.
Gong, Y 2013, Global operations strategy: fundamentals and practice, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
IMF 2008, Globalization: a brief overview, viewed 3 January 2016,
Johnson, D & Turner, C 2003, International business: themes and issues in the modern global economy, Routledge, London.
Khosrow-Pour, M 2004, Advanced topics in information resources management, Idea Publishing Group.
Loukakou, MD & Membe, NB 2012, Product standardization and adaptation in international marketing: a case of McDonalds, Master’s Thesis, University West, Trollhättan, viewed 4 January 2016,
McDonnell, I 2010, ‘Global strategies’, in A Pizam (ed), International encyclopedia of hospitality management, 2nd ed, Butterworth Heinemann, Burlington, MA, pp. 288-289.
Morschett, D, Schramm-Klein, H & Zentes, J 2015, Strategic international management: text and cases, 3rd edn, Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden.
Onkvisit, S & Shaw, JJ 2004, International marketing: analysis and strategy, 4th edn, Routledge, New York.
Peng, MW 2014, Global strategy, 3rd edn, South-Western, Mason, OH.
Saee, J 2007, ‘Globalisation and the multinational enterprises’ corporate strategy in the third millenium’, in J Saee (ed), Contemporary corporate strategy: global perspectives, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon. pp. 1-23.
Sahaf, MA 2008, Strategic marketing: making decisions for strategic advantage, Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd, New Delhi.
Sorge, A, Noorderhaven, N & Koen, C 2015, Comparative international management, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.
Sutherland, J & Canwell, D 2004, Key concepts in strategic management, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, New York.
Vrontis, D & Sharp, I 2003, ‘The strategic positioning of Coca-Cola in their global marketing operation’, The Marketing Review, vol. pp. 289-309.
Vrtontis, D 2003, ‘Integrating adaptation and standardisation in international marketing: the AdaptStand modelling process’, Journal of Marketing Management, 19, pp. 283-305.
Yip, GS 1989, ‘Global strategy… in a world of nations?’, Sloan Management Review, vol. 31, no.1, pp. 29-41.