# Essays on Goal Programming Team Project Coursework

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The paper "Goal Programming Team Project" is a good example of management coursework. Goal programming is not a specific objective function but rather a collection of goals such as the four goals developed by the manager of the Glissen Paint. The goals include having multiple objective optimizations where more than one goal is developed to handle a problem. For instance, maximizing return or minimizing risk among other objectives. The objectives also have constraints either hard or soft constraints (Romero, 2014). The GP linked is perceived in the four goals developed. The constraints in such goals include the set goals and time limits to achieve them.

For example, the employees have to contact ten existing employees and five new customers each week to reach the weekly sales level of \$6, 000. The employees cannot work for more than 50 hours per week. The objective is to minimize the sum of the weighted undesirable percentage deviation from the goals. The decision variables include minimizing risk and pollution while maximizing profits and returns, as perceived in the goals set. The hard constraints in the project are challenging and too restrictive such that they cannot be violated.

The hard or system constraints have no flexibility while the soft constraints such as required return are the soft goal constraints (Romero, 2014). The Glissen Paint has goal constraints, which include: Glissen Paint Co.         Target     Weighted % Goals     Total Value % Deviation Weight Deviation Cost of operation per month \$40 \$32 \$261.6 \$244.0 7.21% 1 7.21% Expenses per month 800 1,250 6,990.8 6950.0 0.59% 1 0.59% Accidents per month 0.20 0.45 2.1442 2.00 7.21% 1 7.21%                 Constraints     Available Required per month       HG existing customers contacted 10   62.33 40       MG new customers 5   28.47 20                       Total customers contacted 15   100.00 100                       Objective               MiniMax Variable 0.072089             Goal Constraints: Sales Existing New Hours Actual \$6,000 10 5 50 +Under \$0 0 0 0 -Over \$0 4.44E-16 0 5 =Goal \$6,000 10 5 45 Target \$6,000 10 5 45 Thus, the decision variables that the Glissen Paint manager faces is the need to increase profits and returns while experiencing the least risks possible. The increase in revenues and profit maximization occurs when the employees attain the set weekly sales by contacting ten existing and five new customers per week.

The problem is perceived through the set goals. The four-set goals aim to increase profits, showing that the problem the business experiences is the lack of attaining sufficient profits and returns to run the company or reach the desired profitability (Ragsdale, 2014). The problem as perceived through the set goals is the financial performance of the business. The set goals occur as soft constraints; they also have the characteristics of hard constraints.

That is; through evaluating the goals, one notices that the limits are not discretionarily presenting it as a hard constraint value; the employees must accomplish the goal. Thus, the solution to the Glissen Paint problem should be attained through the development of the LP model from this GP problem presented. The goals presented are likely to achieve the solution that the company requires. Goal Programming Objective Functions The goals minimized weights view deviations from the directions leading to the understanding of the goals as equally desirable.

However, some of the goals with over reduced weight are undesirable. The set objective function presents that underachieving the set goals will result in an unwanted solution to the problem perceived in the company (Lee, 1972). Thus, underachieving the set goals is an unwelcome solution leading to the identification of the goals as hard constraints. However, overachieving the goals set may occur as a desirable resolution to the problem as it increases profits and returns while reducing the risks and pollutants in the organization. Through assigning weights to the deviational variables in the objective GP problem function, the manager will make a decision regarding the importance and desirability of deviating from some of the goals (Lee, 1972).

A variable with a value larger than zero is highly undesirable while the values with (0) values are considered as neutral. It is a desirable deviation weight and acceptable variable for making a decision. Thus, the decision of whether the set goals are acceptable and desirable for the Glissen Paint Co. is determined by the weighted value of the goals set.

References

Charnes, A., & Cooper, W. W. (1977). Goal programming and multiple objective optimizations: Part 1. European Journal of Operational Research, 39-54.

Lee, S. M. (1972). Goal programming for decision analysis. Philadelphia: Auerbach.

Ragsdale, C. (2014). Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis: A Practical Introduction to Business Analytics. New York: Cengage Learning.

Romero, C. (2014). Handbook of critical issues in goal programming. New York: Elsevier.

Schniederjans, M. (2012). Goal Programming: Methodology and Applications: Methodology and Applications. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

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