The paper 'Leadership and Participation in Small Groups' is a great example of a Management Essay. A group decision is a process in which a group of individuals works together to assess problems or situations, examine the available options, and choose the most suitable option to solve the problem (Merigo et. al 2014). This paper focuses on examine group decisions regarding its pitfalls, strengths, and implementation process. The size of a group decision ranges from two-seven. The functioning of a group decision is affected by some of the factors that include: its structural organization, composition, size, and the rationale of the group.
A group decision can be formal or informal in nature, and its functions are governed by specific goals. The effectiveness of the decision-making group is affected by external factors such as time pressure and contradictory goals. The process of group decision making has advantages and disadvantages. Many people refer to group decisions as a team, but there are differences between the two. A group decision has a definite leader while a team shares leadership responsibilities among themselves. The effectiveness of a group decision is measured indirectly but in a team through collective work products; their effectiveness is measured.
In a team, there is collective accountability while, in the group, accountability is individual’ s responsibility. Heineken Company is the leading company in the production of beer in Europe. This company was established in 1864 by the Heineken family. The brewer has received several awards due to the quality beer that it produces. This company operates in 178 countries worldwide, and it has over eighty thousand employees who are committed to diverse team players. However, the company is facing some risks such as liquidity risk, marketing risk, and credit risk.
These risks are caused by the external and internal factors of the company. The management of the company has the responsibility of controlling and managing the risks. The management, therefore, needs to establish strategies on how to mitigate the risks. The strategies are best arrived at by careful assessment and decisions are made. A group decision is, therefore, useful for the Heineken Company (Wyatt, S., and Mathur, S., 2014). There are some factors affecting group decision making.
One of the factors is the nature of the decision to be made. If the decision to be made is for a specific agency, and then, the information individual decision is necessary, and there is no need of seeking information from others. Time is also another factor that influences group decisions. Availability of time allows the group to delegate and share information thus making a decision. On the other hand, if the time is limited, managers may be forced to make their decisions. Another factor affecting group decision is confidentiality.
In most cases, confidential information is not shared. This hinders group information sharing because important information might be left out due to confidentiality. The primacy of an organization affects group decisions when there is a need for multi-organizational issues. This problem leads to poor coordination of members. A group decision is relevant when more than one agency is involved in a certain incident. For example, in the case of the fire incident, firefighters and rescuers are going to be involved more. Despite Fire Company being more responsible for addressing fire emergencies, other agencies are also required.
Agencies such as police and ambulance services are important to handle the traffic cases and the injured respectively. Language is another factor that influences decision making. It affects the effectiveness of communication when some individuals in the group do not understand the language used (Palomares, et. al 2014).
Anon, 2010. Emergency response and recovery- non statutory guidance accompanying the civil contingencies act 2004. Cabinet Office, Civil Contingencies Secretariat, London.
Baker, D. P., Day, R., & Salas, E. 2006. Teamwork as an Essential Component of High-Reliability Organizations. Health Services Research, 41(4), 1576- 1598..
Dainty, A., Moore, D. and Murray, M. 2006. Communication in construction: Theory and practice. London, Taylor & Francis.
Haslam, C., Alexander Haslam, S., Knight, C., Gleibs, I., Ysseldyk, R., & McCloskey, L. G. (2014). We can work it out: Group decision‐making builds social identity and enhances the cognitive performance of care residents. British Journal of Psychology, 105(1), 17-34.
Intorelli, A., Braig, D. & Moquin, R., 2009. Real-time data fusion and visualization in support of emergency response operations. HST '09.IEEE Conference, 417-424.
Jens G. & Christoph D. 2013. Challenges of global brewery industry. Retrieved from: http://elgarblog.com/2013/08/02/challenges-of-the-global-brewery-industry-by-jens-gammelgaard-and-christoph-dorrenbacher/
Kolbe, Michaela, 2007. Koordination von Entscheidungsprozessen in Gruppen. Die Bedeutung expliziter Koordinationsmechanismen. Saarbrücken: VDM Wilson, Gerald L., 2005. Groups in context. Leadership and participation in small groups. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Malczewski, J., & Rinner, C., 2015. GIS-MCDA for Group Decision Making. In Multi-criteria Decision Analysis in Geographic Information Science (pp. 223-247). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Merigó, J. M., Casanovas, M., & Yang, J. B., 2014. Group decision making with expertons and uncertain generalized probabilistic weighted aggregation operators. European Journal of Operational Research, 235(1), 215-224.
Mishra, J., Allen, D. and Pearman, A., 2014, Information seeking, use, and decision making. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.
Natalie M.S., Jayrant Rajpopal Luis G. Vargas 2015. Group Decision Making with Dispersion in the Hierarchy process. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10726-015-9445-7
Palomares, I., Martinez, L., & Herrera, F. 2014. A consensus model to detect and manage noncooperative behaviors in large-scale group decision making.Fuzzy Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 22(3), 516-530.
Pedrycz, W., & Song, M., 2011. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in group decision making and its optimization with an allocation of information granularity. Fuzzy Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 19(3), 527-539.
Wei, G.W., 2011. Grey relational analysis method for 2-tuple linguistic multiple attribute group decision making with incomplete weight information.Expert Systems with Applications, 38(5), pp.4824-4828. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957417410011206
Wilson, Gerald L., 2005. Groups in context. Leadership and participation in small groups. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Wilson, T. D., 2010. Information sharing: An exploration of the literature and some propositions. Information Research, 15.
Wyatt, S. and Mathur, S., 2014. Asia Pacific Breweries: A Big Gulp for Heineken?.