The first literature got published by a renowned professor named Taylor. The book was published in the year 1909 and was titled "The Principles of Scientific Management. ” Through his book, Taylor suggested that optimization or rather a simplification jobs result in increased productivity in any production setting. He championed the idea of a warm and close co-existence between the managerial personnel and their workers in any company. The methods were on contrary to the previous techniques used in management. During the early times, Managers would alleviate themselves from their workers and, therefore, most of the employee’ s performance carried out their responsibilities independently.
The work setting, therefore, lacked an ultimate supervisory structure that would result in effective and optimized productivity. There existed no policies that would cover for motivational provision for the workers. Thus, the workers were solely motivated by their continued employment and the evident job security (Taylor 1997). W. Taylor was among the pioneers of scientific management. He defined it as the systematic study of people and tasks so in order to redesign jobs. Among Taylor’ s core principles was the belief that by optimizing processes and procedures involved in accomplishing a task, the time spent by each worker on that particular task is significantly reduced and thus cost reduction.
He held the belief that all workers received ultimate motivation through monetary incentives and bonuses. He, therefore, pioneered and championed the philosophy of better pay better productivity. Taylor's engineering background enabled him to carry out all his studies putting more attention on efficiency. During his tenure at a United States-based steel manufacturer, he managed to come up with an attractive design.
Taylor developed an experiment with the capabilities of determining optimum performance levels within the production level (Taylor 1997). He did his experiment then by use of a shovel design. He performed the operation repeatedly until when he was able to come up with an optimum design that would ensure the optimum performance of the workers. He also tested his design in bricklaying. As, a result, he came up with an efficient way of laying the bricks that would ensure optimum performance. His models were, however, universal. As such, the interpolation of these models would fit any workplace setting and ensure optimum performance and productivity.
He could develop the best and the most efficient way of accomplishing almost every task. Taylor’ s extensive studies in time and motion helped them to come up with the conclusion that there were considerable differences between the performances of every individual. The best performers were the people targeted by most managers if they needed to ensure optimum performance. Taylor recognized the criticality and volatility of the relationship between employees and the employer. He studied these relationships and found that it was important to have a list of the best performing individuals while selecting workers for a particular task.
Taylor developed four principles based on his research and famously known as "Taylorism". Fayol’ s theories faced a lot of criticism from other economists for all the period it lasted. Few scholars bought Fayol`s ideas. The methods have provided a means through which managers can efficiently and effectively deliberate on their duties. Few scholars have paid attention to Fayol`s literature and theories. However, extensive studies on these theories have been advanced by various economists. Taylor tried to merge scientific methods with management and thus come up with scientific proven managerial techniques (Fayol 1987).
TAYLOR, F. W. (1947). Scientific management, comprising Shop management, The principles of scientific management [and] Testimony before the special House committee. New York, Harper.
TAYLOR, F. W. (1967). The principles of scientific management. New York, Norton.
COPLEY, F. B. (1923). Frederick W. Taylor, father of scientific management. New York, Harper and Bros.
NELSON, D. (1992). A Mental revolution: scientific management since Taylor. Columbus, Ohio State University Press.
WREGE, C. D., & GREENWOOD, R. G. (1991). Frederick W. Taylor, the father of scientific management: myth and reality. Homewood, Ill, Business One Irwin.
TAYLOR, F. W., & TAYLOR, F. W. (1993). The principles of scientific management ; and Shop management. London, Routledge/Thoemmes Press
NELSON, D. (1980). Frederick W. Taylor and the rise of scientific management. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press.
THOMPSON, C. B. (1914). Scientific management; a collection of the more significant articles describing the Taylor system of management. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
SALENGER EDUCATIONAL MEDIA (FIRM). (1984). Frederick Taylor and scientific management. Santa Monica, CA, Salenger Films.
THOMPSON, C. B. (1974). The Taylor system of scientific management; a report. Easton [Pa.], Hive Pub. Co.
EVANS, C., & HOLMES, L. (2013). Re-Tayloring management scientific management a century on. Farnham, Gower. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=531789.
HUNT, E. E. (1924). Scientific management since Taylor, a collection of authoritative papers. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
TAYLOR, F. W., & COPLEY, F. B. (1919). Two papers on scientific management A piece-rate system and Notes on belting. London, G. Routledge & Sons.
COPLEY, F. B. (1923). Frederick W. Taylor, Father of Scientific Management Vol. 2 Vol. 2. New York ;London, Harper.
DOUGHERTY, R. M., HEINRITZ, F. J., & KASKE, N. K. (1982). Scientific management of library operations. Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow Press.
TAYLOR SOCIETY, & PERSON, H. S. (1929). Scientific management in American industry. New York, Harper & Bros.
NATO ADVANCED STUDY INSTITUTE ON THE EVALUATION AND SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT OF LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTRES, LANCASTER, F. W., & CLEVERDON, C. W. (1977). Evaluation and scientific management of libraries and information centres: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on the Evaluation and Scientific Management of Libraries and Information Centres, Bristol, U.K., August 17-29, 1975]. Leyden, Noordhoff.
HABER, S. (1964). Efficiency and uplift; scientific management in the progressive era, 1890-1920. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
SIDDIQI, F. (1981). Management of work: the contribution of F.W. Taylor and other pioneers to scientific management.
DRUCKER, P. F. (1954). The practice of management. New York, Harper & Row.
AFANASʹEV, V. G. (1971). The scientific management of society. Moscow, Progress Publishers.
WARING, S. P. (1991). Taylorism transformed: scientific management theory since 1945. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press.
Hurpar and brothers. (1911)The principles of scientific management: New York and London.
John E. Clark, John Elwood Clark (2004) Railroads in the civil war: The impact of management on victory and defeat. . p.13
Derek Salman Pugh, David John Hickson (2007) Great Writers Organizations: The Third Omnibus edition. P. 144
Fredrick Taylor, Early Century Management Consultant. The Wall Street Journal. June 13, 1997. Retrieved May 4th 2008.
Atta, Don Van (1986), “Why there is no Taylorism in the soviet union?” in: Comparative Politics, Vol. 18, No.3. (April 1986), pp. 327-337
Fayol, H. (1987). General and Industrial Management: Henri Fayol’s classic revised by Irwins Gray. Belmont, CA: Davis S. Lake Publishers.
LEONARD, D. C. (2002). Learning theories, A to Z. Westport, Conn, Oryx Press.
WITZEL, M., & WARNER, M. (2013). The Oxford handbook of management theorists. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
BILTON, C. (2007). Management and creativity: from creative industries to creative management. Malden, MA, Blackwell Pub.
KESSLER, E. H. (2013). Encyclopedia of management theory. Thousand Oaks, Calif, SAGE. http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/encyclopedia-of-management-theory/SAGE.xml.
HART, W. S. (1969). Early and current management theorists, a comparative functional analysis.
SUTHERLAND, J., & CANWELL, D. (2004). Key concepts in operations management. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
WISEMAN, D., & HUNT, G. (2001). Best practice in motivation and management in the classroom. Springfield, Ill, C.C. Thomas.
BISWAS, S., & TWITCHELL, D. (2002). Management consulting: a complete guide to the industry. New York, John Wiley.
BENNETT, W. W., HESS, K. M., & ORTHMANN, C. M. H. (2007). Management and supervision in law enforcement.
KENNEDY, C. (1991). Instant management: the best ideas from the people who have made a difference in how we manage. New York, W. Morrow.
FAYOL, H. (1976). General principles of management. Anderson, S.C., Tutor/Tapes.
MERRILL, H. F. (1960). Classics in management. New York, American Management Association.
CRAINER, S. (2000). The management century: a critical review of 20th century thought and practice. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
DEL MAR, D., & COLLONS, R. D. (1976). Classics in scientific management: a book of readings. University, University of Alabama Press.
BROGAN, J. W. (2007). Principles of administration reengineered. [S.l.], Management Upgrade Shop.
KHRISTENKO, V. B., REUS, A. G., & ZINCHENKO, A. P. (2014). Methodological school of management. London, Bloomsbury.
MINER, J. B. (1995). Administrative and management theory. Aldershot, Dartmouth.
FAYOL, H. (1981). General principles of management. Toms River, N.J., Tutor/Tape division of Tutor College Services.
CRAINER, S. (1997). The ultimate business library: 50 books that shaped management thinking. New York, AMACOM.
BOONE, L. E., & BOWEN, D. D. (1987). The Great writings in management and organizational behavior. New York, Random House.
BABBAGE, C., FAYOL, H., GANTT, H. L., GILBRETH, F. B., MAYO, E., OWEN, R., SMITH, A., & TAYLOR, F. W. (1976). Management classics. Anderson, S.C., Tutor/tape.
CRAINER, S. (2003). The ultimate business library: the greatest books that made management. Oxford, Capstone.
(2003). The best business books ever: the 100 most influential management books you'll never have time to read. Cambridge, MA, Perseus Pub.
SHAFRITZ, J. M., & WHITBECK, P. H. (1978). Classics of organization theory. Oak Park, Ill, Moore Pub. Co.
(2011). The best business books ever the most influential management books you'll never have time to read. New York, Basic Books. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=583982.
SCHATZ, H. A. (1970). Social work administration: a resource book. New York, Council on Social Work Education.
MINER, J. B. (2007). Organizational behavior 4: from theory to practice. Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe.
THOMPSON, K. (2003). The Early Sociology of Manangement and Organizations. Taylor & Francis. http://www.myilibrary.com?id=9994.
PIERCE, D. R. (1963). An analysis of contemporary theories of organization and administration. [Gainesville], University of Florida.
WEBSTER, F. (2003). Theories of the information society. London, Routledge.
BARTOL, K. M., & MARTIN, D. C. (1994). Management. New York, McGraw-Hill.
LENNIE, I. (1999). Beyond management. London, Sage. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10392728.
WINKLER, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories enhancing the understanding of the complexity, subjectivity and dynamic of leadership. Heidelberg, Physica-Verlag. http://www.myilibrary.com?id=282510.
GREENWOOD, D. (1956). Contemporary theories of union-management relations. Washington, Public Affairs Press.