Essays on Health Economics of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Literature review

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The paper "Health Economics of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution" is an outstanding example of a management literature review.   Air pollution has continued to be a health concern for many countries worldwide. Countries such US and many Europe countries are believed to have ratified anti-air pollution laws many years ago but they have not eradicated totally air pollutions. Countries control mostly outdoor air pollution through a series of strategies such as the executive orders signed to control pollution and adherence to WHO legislations on air pollution. Outdoor air pollutions have been widespread because policymakers focus on the industrial pollutants treatment and disposal rather than source reduction as argued by Lu et al (2016).

Source reduction is more substantial in controlling air pollutions as compared to waste management as recommended by Ni et al (2016). The impacts of air pollution on human health majorly depends on an individual’ s present fitness, the type of pollutant and its concentration and duration of exposure to air pollution. Haberzettl et al (2016) argue that high air pollution results to immediate health complications such as asthma and cancer whereas continuous exposure to low air pollution zones leads to the gradual accumulation of dust particles in the lungs, which leads to breathing difficulties and reported deaths.

This paper will examine the causes of both indoor and outdoor air pollution, the effects of air pollution on health, how to monitor air pollution and policy enactment in the prevention of air pollution. Causes of air pollution According to Philips et al (2016) air pollution contributes significantly to environmental health problems which have hit both developing and developed nations. In developing countries, the highest air pollutions experiences have been due to indoor air contamination as suggested by Thomas (2017).

The indoor air contamination is caused by biomass cooking using cow dung, coal and open fire cooking using charcoal. The causes of air pollution range from the emission of dangerous gases such as carbon dioxide to forest fires as discussed below, The first cause of air pollution according to Haberzettl et al (2016) is industry emissions. Industrial processes release pollutants which include nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide during combustion. Low emission of these gases is less toxic as stated by Lu et al (2016) but as a result of comprehensive production, factories have extremely released the gases in the environment leading to pollution.

The reaction of nitrous oxide, sunlight and volatile organic compounds leads to the formation of ozone. Ozone according to Antweiler (2017) causes irritation to the respiratory system which can result in asthma and bronchitis. Air pollution can also be caused by wood fires. O’ Donovan et al (2017) argue that burning wood releases particulate matters into the air, which includes a mixture of extremely smaller particles and liquid droplets.

The smaller particles of dust and gases when inhaled accumulate into the lungs leading to breathing problems and strain of the heart as further concluded by Li et al (2o17). The accumulated particles end up blocking the alveoli leading to health complications such as asthma. In addition, air pollution is caused by vehicle emissions. The ever-increasing number of the public transport vehicle and other private road unworthy vehicles has led to increased levels of air pollution (Ierodiakonou et al 2016). The combustion of petrol, diesel and other alternative fuels releases carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and dust particles into the air.

The emission from a large number of both private and public transport vehicles add up to significant air quality problem as purported by Sammarco et al (2017). The released gases which are generally invisible when inhaled by human leads respiratory complications and long exposure leads to lung failure which results in death.

References

Ni, K., Carter, E., Schauer, J. J., Ezzati, M., Zhang, Y., Niu, H., ... & Baumgartner, J. (2016). Seasonal variation in outdoor, indoor, and personal air pollution exposures of women using wood stoves in the Tibetan Plateau: Baseline assessment for an energy intervention study. Environment International, 94, 449-457.

Lu, C., Deng, Q., Li, Y., Sundell, J., & Norbäck, D. (2016). Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China. Science of the Total Environment, 560, 186-196.

Hu, W., Downward, G., Reiss, B., Rothman, N., Li, J., He, J., ... & Hosgood, D. (2016). Outdoor air pollution and household coal combustion in a rural high lung cancer incidence area of China.

Haberzettl, P., O’Toole, T. E., Bhatnagar, A., & Conklin, D. J. (2016). Exposure to fine particulate air pollution causes vascular insulin resistance by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress. Environmental health perspectives, 124(12), 1830.

Phillips, D. I., Osmond, C., Williams, M. L., & Jones, A. (2016). Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease. International Journal of Epidemiology, dyw249.

O'Donovan, G., Chudasama, Y., Grocock, S., Leigh, R., Dalton, A. M., Gray, L. J., ... & Webb, D. (2017). The association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes in a large cross-sectional study in Leicester: The CHAMPIONS Study. Environment International, 104, 41-47.

Ierodiakonou, D., Zanobetti, A., Coull, B. A., Melly, S., Postma, D. S., Boezen, H. M., ... & Hallstrand, T. S. (2016). Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in asthmatic children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(2), 390-399.

Thomas, J. (2017). What You Need to Know about Air Pollution: Its Importance and Effective Solutions. Environment and Pollution, 6(1), 70.

Antweiler, W. (2017). Emission trading for air pollution hot spots: getting the permit market right. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 19(1), 35-58.

Li, X., Qiao, Y., & Shi, L. (2017). The aggregate effect of air pollution regulation on CO 2 mitigation in China's manufacturing industry: an econometric analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 976-984.

Sammarco, M., Tse, R., Pau, G., & Marfia, G. (2017). Using geosocial search for urban air pollution monitoring. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 35, 15-31.

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