The paper "How Endorsements Affect Consumer Behavior Of Young Adults In Fashion Market" is a wonderful example of a Marketing Case Study. Celebrities such as Humphrey Bogart, Audrey Hepburn, and Madonna are highly used in marketing luxury and fashion brands. More recently, sports celebrities have been used increasingly as luxury and fashion brand endorsers (Schroder 2006). For instance, David Beckham, a football legend, was used by Dolce and Gabbana in marketing its brand. Despite the many risks and costs involved, fashion and luxury companies are increasingly employing celebrities in building brand images and positioning. Celebrity endorsement is considered the most effective tool for product promotion globally.
According to the available research, about 25% of all advertisements around the world feature celebrities (Berthon et. al 2012). Celebrities, given their popularity, are meaningful in transferring the same popularity to the brands and products being marketed, often at high fees. Brands like Nike spend millions of dollars to have their brands endorsed by celebrities. The celebrities, as mentioned herein, being popular among young consumers work as the best tools for the particular target market (Chan et. al 2013).
On the other hand, it is a prerequisite for such endorsement that a brand is established first in the industry for such endorsements to be effective. Similarly, as described later in this study, it is meaningful to select the right endorsers with respect to brand quality, image and market share (Holensen 2013). Celebrities are people renowned in a society based on their specific accomplishments in various fields ranging from politics, music, sport, or movies. Companies employ celebrity endorsement to seek differentiation from competitors especially in markets with the significantly high proliferation of international, regional and local brands (Srinivasa 2013).
Companies are also free to employ anonymous models to endorse their brands and products but such models, in contrast with celebrities, only provide demographic information to the consumer such as status, age, and gender while the resultant meanings may be imprecise and blunt. On the other hand, celebrities provide for a variety of personalities and lifestyles and are at the same time more profound media compared to anonymous models (Srinivasa 2013). Celebrities also upgrade the image transfer processes hence sustained brand communication as well as achievement of higher attention and recall levels. However, celebrity endorsement is not problem-free.
Similar to all other marketing or advertising strategies, celebrity endorsement may subject the organization or company to considerable risk levels. Relationships between the marketer and the celebrity may be compromised, or the celebrities may be subject to negative publicity. For instance, actress Zang Ziyi was accused of embezzlement of charity funds, Tiger Woods was involved in a sex scandal, O.J. Simpson faced murder chargers and Mike Tyson was sentenced to jail, just to mention a few (Ruihley et. al 2010).
During such instances, the reputation of a brand may be tarnished while consumer confidence and trust in a brand are consequently diminished. Furthermore, celebrity endorsements may be affected by other factors such as sudden alteration of the celebrity image and personality or decreased popularity among brand consumers. 1.20 Celebrities and consumer behavior The 21st century is conforming to increased use of effective propaganda as well as new marketing concepts in attempts to influence and support the perception of a brand by consumers. Current studies provide that more than 80% of purchases by young consumers are triggered by visual presentations while such buying is largely dependent on authority such as celebrities for confirmation and quality guarantee (Rath et. al 2014).
An evident propaganda tool is the utilization of witnesses and prominent figures which draw consumer attention from various aspects. The perspectives deemed desirable by target audiences for the celebrities lie within a created sense of and credibility and confidence, audience persuasion and accreditation. In essence, the celebrities ascribe their attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise, character, reputation, credibility, and image to the brand.
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