The paper 'Contemporary Issues in Human Resource Development' is a perfect example of a Management Assignment. The first part is a definition of learning and explanation of the three domains of learning including cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. The paper then proceeds to elaborate on learning in behavioral terms before giving a vivid account of how adult learning differs from children. These differences have a great impact on the HRD program such that trainers should be aware of the fact adult learners value their independence and past experiences. The final part of the essay discusses how training and development differ from HRD and the recent trends in HRD. ‘ Learning’ Formally, learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior prompted by personal interaction with the environment (Gupta, 26).
Changes in behavior occur in both animals and human beings. A creature wishing to survive in an environment ought to change behavior with a view of adapting to different situations. The other facet of learning is its permanent nature, which means that behavior is flexible and not genetically pre-established in terms of function. Domains of Learning Cognitive domain This domain is based on the knowledge and development of intellectual skills.
It revolves around recall, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve the development of intellectual abilities and skills. The domain has six levels starting with knowledge at the bottom. Achievement of knowledge level enables an individual to recall data or information. The keywords used at this basic level are defined, identify, or describe. At the second level is comprehension, which enables a learner to understand the meaning and interpretation of instructions (Gupta, 28). An example of the keyword used here explains, which requires a learner to use own words.
The third level is an application where a learner uses a concept in a different situation. These levels then progress to the fourth stage, analysis, where concepts are broken into parts to enhance understanding. The fifth level is the synthesis that entails building a pattern from parts. Evaluation is the final stage where judgments are made about ideas. Affective domain This illustrates the manner in which an individual person handles things emotionally. It, therefore, entails feelings, values, appreciation, motivation, and attitude.
Awareness, distinction, and integration are the three levels in this domain. Verbs used in this category are limited to display, exhibit, and accept. Psychomotor domain This is based on physical movement, coordination, and utilizing psychomotor skills. These areas require practice. The speed, precision, distance, and procedures serve to measure the development of psychomotor skills. Starting from simple to complex, the domain has the following categories: perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, and origination. Defining learning in Behavioural Terms Learning is said to have taken place when a person displays behavior that is related to the new learning.
The environment plays a critical role in controlling learning. This means that learners respond to environmental stimuli and the response is reinforced positively or negatively. From the reinforcement, a learner can either continue displaying behavior or not. A person’ s behavior is a product of conditioning and reaction is the consequence of stimuli rather than conscious action. The consequence can be controlled by either rewarding or punishing behavior.
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