IntroductionThe first part is a definition of learning and explanation of the three domains of learning including cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. The paper then proceeds to elaborate learning in behavioural terms before giving a vivid account of how adult learning differ from children. These differences have a great impact on HRD program such that trainers should be aware of the fact adult learners value their independence and past experiences. The final part of the essay discusses how training and development differ from HRD and the recent trends in HRD. ‘Learning’Formally, learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour prompted by personal interaction with environment (Gupta, 26).
Changes in behaviour occur in both animals and human beings. A creature wishing to survive in an environment ought to change behaviour with a view of adapting to different situations. The other facet of learning is its permanent nature, which means that behaviour is flexible and not genetically pre-established in terms of function. Domains of Learning Cognitive domainThis domain is based on knowledge and development of intellectual skills. It revolves around recall, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve development of intellectual abilities and skills.
The domain has six levels starting with knowledge at the bottom. Achievement of knowledge level enables an individual to recall data or information. The key words used at this basic level are define, identify or describe. At the second level is comprehension, which enables a learner to understand meaning and interpretation of instructions (Gupta, 28). An example of key word used here is explain, which requires a learner to use own words. The third level is application where a learner uses a concept in a different situation.
These levels then progresses to the forth stage, analysis, where concepts are broken into parts to enhance understanding. The fifth level is synthesis that entails building a pattern from parts. Evaluation is the final stage where judgements are made about ideas. Affective domainThis illustrates the manner in which individual person handles things emotionally. It therefore entails feelings, values, appreciation, motivation, and attitude. Awareness, distinction, and integration are the three levels in this domain. Verbs used in this category are limited to display, exhibit, and accept.
Psychomotor domainThis is based on physical movement, coordination and utilising psychomotor skills. These areas require practice. The speed, precision, distance, and procedures serves to measure development of psychomotor skills. Starting from simple to complex, the domain has the following categories: perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, and origination. Defining learning in Behavioural TermsLearning is said to have taken place when a person displays behaviour that is related to the new learning. The environment plays a critical role in controlling learning. This means that learners respond to environmental stimuli and the response is reinforced positively or negatively.
From the reinforcement, a learner can either continue displaying behaviour or not. A person’s behaviour is a product of conditioning and reaction is the consequence of stimuli rather than conscious action. The consequence can be controlled by either rewarding or punishing behaviour.