The paper "The Learning Process Changes the HRD to a Different Mode of Management " is a good example of management coursework. Whether consciously or unconsciously, all individuals undergo the learning process since it is an important requirement for the existence of human beings. Individual learning is the ability of an individual to undergo the knowledge building process through reflections on external sources. Individual learning in an organization is important to both the individual and the organization through implications of the individuals to change their behaviors. Psychologists have come up with different theories and models to help explain the different ways individuals learn. Gallagher (2016) explains David Kolb's theory of the learning cycle as a method where an individual learns through experience.
In his theory, David elaborates that true learning is dependent on having an experience, reflecting on the experience and make sense of it so that one can apply it in case a similar scenario arises in the future. When an individual misses any of the steps in Kolb's model, then the learning process is corrupted. These four major steps in learning can be shown in the diagram below: Based on Kolb’ s theory, Honey & Mumford (1986) came up with a mode of classification for individuals based on their learning techniques.
The first is the activists, they learn and develop through activities and involving exercises as opposed to lectures. Theorists are more involved in learning theories behind certain learning sources, especially from data and researchers. Theorists are logical and rational in the process of learning but are highly uncomfortable with emotions and feelings. Reflectors are the group of learners that are involved in reviewing events and situations in certain groups without being actively involved.
Besides, reflectors are uncomfortable and shy in taking the lead publicly. Finally, Pragmatists are practical in their learning process and prefer real-world situational applications. It is, therefore, important to formulate each's appropriate learning style as the styles differ with different personalities. Gardner (1998) explains that individuals have different types and degrees of intelligence in his theory of multiple bits of intelligence. He lists seven different types of intelligence as musical, linguistic, spatial, intrapersonal, logical, body-kinesthetic, and interpersonal. The theory suggests that the individual learning process should focus on the specific intelligence that an individual possesses.
A good example is an individual with interpersonal intelligence should undergo the learning process through the development of social skills. Cooper, (2007) explains Leon Festinger’ s theory of cognitive dissonance. He states that individuals often seek consistency from their cognitions including customs, beliefs, and opinions. Changes are needed to deal with any case of dissonance that exists in the learning process; an example of dissonance is the inconsistency in attitudes or behavior. A difference or inconsistency between attitude and behavior will often lead to the attitude changing to accommodate behavior. Brainerd and Scandura (1997) explain the theory of competence as a four-stage process.
These authors show the transformation unconscious incompetence to unconscious competence. The first stage of the four-phase process is unconscious incompetence where an individual does not understand or have any knowledge on how to perform a certain task and besides lacks the desire to address the issue and therefore does not recognize the deficit. Conscious incompetence is the situation where an individual recognizes the deficit but does not address the issue since he or she does not have knowledge on how to perform certain tasks.
Conscious competence relates to an individual having knowledge of completing certain tasks but putting this knowledge into practice is hard, as it requires high levels of concentration. Finally, unconscious competence is a situation where an individual is knowledgeable and has experience in performing tasks, and thus these tasks can be easily performed without high concentration levels. Depending on the time and place, the individual learned the skills there are high levels of probability that the individual may or may not teach others.
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