The paper "Job Analysis Process and Its Importance to Organization" is a great example of management coursework. In managing human resources, managers are faced with complex tasks such as deciding where to place employees in order to make use of their potential, determining how to identify the employees’ needs, understanding how to set performance measurement standards, knowing how to identify jobs, and establishing how to eliminate unnecessary jobs. To help solve these issues, Schmitt (2012, p. 29) recommends organizations to conduct a job analysis. The process entails investigating the requirement of a job in order to determine its nature and the criteria of the person most appropriate to handle the job.
While trying to address these challenges, managers must effectively fulfil the selection and recruitment of human resources and balance the responsibilities and performance satisfaction processes in line with the organization’ s requirements. An effective job analysis process will thus ensure that an organization hires the right employees, assesses their training and development needs, and determines their performance standards (Gatewood, Field, & Barrick, 2008, p. 58). Managers should follow the eight-step job analysis process in order to handle the human resources issues they face. Identify job analysis purpose: Before spending any time, energy, or resources on collecting human resource data, human resource (HR) managers should have a well-defined purpose for the process.
Therefore, this stage is meant to determine the need for the job analysis process and the desired or expected output. This step guides the organization in ensuring that the job analysis process is restricted to the intended purpose. Determining the analyst: Another very important stage of the process is determining who will conduct the analysis process.
It can be conducted either by an organization’ s HR department or by independent job analysis consultants. Though costly, job analysis consultants can make perfect analysts as their decisions, methods, and guidelines are not biased. Further, consultants do not have personal likes and dislike for any job being analysed, which helps them give unbiased advice (Schmitt, 2012, p. 31). Selecting the method: This stage entails determining how to carry out the job analysis process. The approach to be taken must be planned in order to ensure that the specific job is investigated; this will ensure that the organization does not waste its resources by employing a method that will not provide accurate results. Strategic decision-making: It is at this step that crucial strategic decisions are made.
Such decisions determine the level of employee involvement, the number of details to be collected or recorded, the data sources, the methods of data collection, and the methods to be used in data analysis (O’ Driscoll & Kalliath, 2003, p. 69. This step ensures that the procedure of job analysis is well-defined, thus saving time that would rather be spent when making such decisions at a later stage. Training the analysts: At this step, the HR manager trains the analyst about how to carry out the process.
The training process may differ; in some organizations, it is an independent analyst who trains the analysts. Preparation for the process: Information regarding the process should be shared within the organization through an effective communication method. The importance of communication is to ensure that the employees are aware of and are prepared to willingly support the analyst. Data collection instruments like questionnaires, feedback forms, and interview schedules should be prepared at this stage (O’ Driscoll & Kalliath, 2003, p.
70). Data collection: At this step, job-related data is collected by the analyst. Data can include employees’ academic qualifications, skills and abilities related to the specific job, required human character or personality working conditions, behaviour, reporting hierarchy, duties and responsibilities, and job activities (O’ Driscoll & Kalliath, 2003, p. 71). Data verification: Collected data should be well-documented in order to determine its authenticity. This is an important step as the information reviewed is to be used in analysing a specific job. Developing job specification and job description: This is the stage when the collected data is segregated to become useful information for the organization.
The job description will elaborate on the activities, roles, duties, and responsibilities for a particular job, while the job specification is a statement setting out the criteria required for an employee to qualify for a specific job (Schmitt, 2012, p. 33). The job criteria are set based on academic qualifications, skills, personality traits, and experience. Methods of Job Analysis Organizations can use a variety of approaches when conducting job analysis.
An important consideration when undertaking job analysis is to decide who is to conduct the job analysis. In many cases, a member of the HR department is tasked with coordinating the process, which can also involve managers, supervisors, and employees. The most commonly used methods are observation, questionnaires, specialized methods, and interviews. A combination of these methods may be used based on an individual situation and the organization’ s focus (Compton, Morrissey, Nankervis & Morrissey. , 2009, p. 72). Using the case of U. S.
Bank, this part of the paper will focus on commonly used methods of job analysis. U.S. Bank has recently been losing its customers to competitors, and Todd Berkley, the new manager for sales and customer retention, has been taking this situation seriously. By employing a competitive strategy to retain and gain more clients, the bank has focused on eliminating some of its customer service problems that are leading to client loss. The new manager realized that the new strategy has affected most of the human resource policies and procedures. A better approach to handle the angry customers and emphasize customer service was to write new job descriptions for all its employees, from the teller to the vice president.
Each new job description included the new customer-related service guidelines for each position. Further, the bank had to train its employees and employ new hiring standards that would focus on hiring service-oriented employees (Gatewood et al. , 2008, p. 44). Below are the common job analysis methods that were used by U. S. Bank. Interview To collect job analysis data, HR managers use three types of interviews: individual interviews meant for each employee, group interviews meant for employees with similar roles, and supervisor interviews for supervisors who understand the employee’ s job.
Group interviews are preferred when focusing on employees with identical roles because this approach can be quick and less expensive to gather data. The employees’ supervisor must attend the session; if this is not possible, the supervisor can be interviewed separately in order to get his or her perspectives on the duties and responsibilities that should be included in the job description. No matter which approach is taken, the interviewee needs to be fully aware of the purpose of the interview so that he or she is prepared to provide accurate information about his or her job (O’ Driscoll & Kalliath, 2003, p.
73). U.S. Bank used group interviews in which tellers, guards, and managers had their interviews conducted in the appropriate groups. Todd Berkley’ s main aim was to conduct job analysis in the shortest time possible in order to ensure that the employees’ roles were well-defined before the bank lost all its clients (Gatewood et al. , 2008, p.
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