IntroductionCappelli (2002) defines Human Resource Management (HRM) as those activities which are involved in developing, acquiring and using individuals in a business. It is the process of appraising, training, motivating and developing sufficient number of workers to act upon the activities necessary for employees’ satisfaction, company’s objectives and efficiency of workers. (Ulrich, 2001) The main functions of HRM are human resource planning, selection and recruitment, management and training development, performance evaluation, payment and providing employee satisfactions plus benefits. HRM encompasses all those activities that are aimed at developing, attracting and sustaining a successful labour force.
We all know that human resources are essential for effective functioning of every organizational. Human Resource planning begins with forecasting the supply and demand of labour as well as job analysis. Forecasting of future plans, current available employees, external supply, internal supply, economic environment etc. are considered in supply and demand analysis. Job analysis on the other hand is the procedure for collecting and recording information about jobs. (Cappelli, 2002)This paper will critically examine the main models of human resource management (HRM). It will evaluate workforce commitment employment model, Labour transactional employment model, Core-Noncore Workforce model (Mixed approach), Training and Development Model As well as International HRM Model.
The paper proposes the likely future developments in this area of human resource development. Workforce commitment employment modelA number of companies have shifted to an approach that is linked to the explicit commitment of employees on the idea that this would promote greater commitment from workers with enhanced productivity. The workforce commitment model takes a long-term perspective on employment relations and puts much focus on social and intellectual capital development within the organisation’s boundaries.
It aims at investing and developing human and social capital within the organisations boundaries in a complex manner that competitors find it hard to imitate overtime. In so doing, it takes its human resource assets as a major competency and a unique capability in organizing thus differentiating the company from other competitors in the market arena. Employees with a desire for a long term employment relationships are bound to view a company that adopts the commitment approach as their employer of choice. (Ulrich, 2001) Employers of choice usually treats employees well offering personal development opportunities, training them well and strives to avoid layoffs as a method of managing the cost of labour.
Examples of human resource practices that support a commitment approach are incentives for performance, measurements of manager’s skills in motivating and developing workers, job security, sharing finances and performance information with employees, constant training and investment in employee skills, culture that minimizes status differences between managers and workers, flexible job assignments and job designs in teams. In principal high commitment human resource practices have impacted heavily on the development of employees well being, decision making power, job knowledge, business literacy and rewards relating to the performance of the company.
Employment relationship model is organisation-focused with the advantage of greater flexibility of employees in carrying out their assignments. Employers are more than willing to offer job training and security in exchange of employees’ flexibility and commitment in terms of working at different geographical locations and accepting various tasks. Workers in these organisations appearing to have fewer hierarchical levels are empowered. To ensure that workers exercise their autonomy to the interest of their bosses, employers are giving job security to the employees in exchange of high employee commitment to the organisation.
Employees are willing to incur opportunity cost by forgoing short-term advantages in order to get long term employment security. (Ulrich, 2001) The forgone advantages may include willingness to learn various tasks which are only specific to one employer and can not be transferable to the external job market and the willingness to work extra hours(over time).