Essays on Human Resource and Performance Management Essay

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The paper 'Human Resource and Performance Management' is a perfect example of a Management Essay. In any give organization, human resources are the most important asset, which works towards the goals and objectives of the entire organization (Armstrong, 2008). Managing human resources, therefore, is one of the most paramount aspects of the running of an organization. Many organizations have implemented was of evaluating their workforce performances to ensure that, the progress of the organization is monitored and evaluated so that changes can be enacted if need be, to improve the performance of the entire organization.

Performance management and performance appraisal are the methodologies used to access all that pertains to the performance of the organization (Boland & Fowler, 2000). Performance appraisal is the activity through which an organization seeks to assess the workforce and develop its competence, enhance performance, and even distribute rewards (Armstrong, 2008). In other words, performance appraisal is all about an individual. Performance management on the other hand is a system that an organization uses for management of organizational performance, employee performance, and most importantly as a leeway to integrate the organizational performance and the employee’ s performance in an organization (Pidd, 2005). This, therefore, means that performance management is all about the organization.

It is therefore noteworthy that, performance appraisal and performance management differs in a big way in their activities. The main difference between the two is exonerated by the fact that performance appraisal concentrates on the individual while performance management is concerned greatly with the organization (Pollitt, 2005.). It is therefore noteworthy that, performance appraisal works towards evaluating individual performance (Radnor & McGuire, 2004) which is aimed at the good of the individual.

For example, its purpose is for individuals' development or any sort of reward (Kuhlmann, 2010). As for the management system, it is a set of activities that are used to evaluate whether the goals and objectives of the entire organization are being met which is done through setting goals, defining work, providing feedback, and encouraging development (Talbot, 2008). Performance management systems generally include performance appraisal and employee development which are key activities for human resource management in any given organization (Armstrong, 2008). It has been agreed that performance management systems help improve performance by establishing clear goals and feedback.

However, this is not without controversy. In many cases, performance management is personal and it has been deemed as a threatening process for managers and their subordinates. But it is worth noting that, performance management is a very important tool that can be used to assist an organization to realize its goals and objectives (Radnor & McGuire, 2004). If done correctly, its outcome is substantially important in an organization, to the managers, and also to the employees.

When designing a management system, it is very important to have the needs of the organization in mind for instance defining what purpose the system will serve (Armstrong, 2008). A performance management system that is designed to achieve too many objectives is likely to be unsuccessful due to a lack of focus (Swiss, 2005). This, therefore, means that for a performance management system to achieve all its goals and also should have a well-calculated process that is aimed at accomplishing evaluation activities that clearly outline role and timelines for managers and the employees.


Armstrong, M. (2008). Handbook for Human Resource Management. London: Kogan Page.

Boswell, W. R. and Boudreau, J. W. (2002). ‘Separating the developmental and evaluative performance appraisal uses’. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16: 391–412.

Boland, T. and Fowler, A. 2000. “A Systems Perspective of Performance Management in Public Sector Organizations,” International Journal of Public Sector Management 13 (5): 417 446.

Isaac, J. E. (2001). ‘Performance related pay: the importance of fairness’. Journal of Industrial Relations, 43: 111–23.

Keeping, L. M. and Levy, P. E. (2000). ‘Performance appraisal reactions: measurement, modeling and method bias’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85:708–23.

Levy, P. E. and Williams, J. R. (2004). ‘The social context of performance appraisal: a review and framework for the future’. Journal of Management, 30: 881–906.

Kuhlmann, Sabine. 2010. “Performance Measurement in European Local Governments: a comparative analysis of reform experiences in Great Britain, France, Sweden and Germany,” International Review of Administrative Sciences 76 (2): 331-345.

Swiss, James E. 2005. “A Framework for Assessing Incentives in Result-based management,” Public Administration Review 65 (5): 592-602.

Rao, T. V. (2004). Performance Management and Appraisal System: HR Tools for Global Competitiveness. London: Sage.

Pollitt, Christopher. 2005. “Performance Management in Practice: A Comparative Study of Executive Agencies,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 16: 25- 44.

Pidd, M. 2005. “Perversity in Public Service Performance Measurement,” International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 54 (5/6): 482-293.

Talbot, Colin. 2008. “Performance Regimes: the Institutional Context of Performance Policies,” International Journal of Public Administration 31: 1569-1591.

Radnor, Zoe and McGuire, Mary. 2004. “Performance Management in the Public Sector: Fact or Fiction?” International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 53 (3): 245-260.

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