Essays on Human Resources Organizations Literature review

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The paper 'Human Resources Organizations' is a perfect example of a Management Literature Review. Sexual harassment is one of the social problems that involve actual issues in the work environment, as well as those that cry out for practical human resource management interventions. It entails an offense against human dignity and can leave a lasting effect on the victim, and even damage a healthy work setting. This paper attempts to explore the issue of sexual harassment from the standpoint of human resources. It also seeks to examine some of the ways in which employees can minimize sexual harassment, and how they should behave upon experiencing or witnessing sexual harassment at the workplace. Workplace sexual harassment According to Rees (2008), sexual harassment refers to any form of sexual advance, verbal, physical, or written behavior of sexual nature by a supervisor, manager, non-employee, or a co-worker (third party).

In this case, a third-party refers to an individual who is not a state worker but has business interactions with state workers. These individuals include but no restricted to consumers, such as applicants for state services and employment, contractors, vendors, and volunteers.

It can also entail a demand for sexual favors by a co-worker, supervisor, or manager of a workplace. Sexual harassment in a work exists in two forms including a hostile environment, and quid pro quo. To start with, quid pro quo entails a kind of sexual harassment when a supervisor, or manager or a person of authority withholds or offers a job-related gain in exchange for a sexual favor from another person like a job applicant or an employee. Ordinarily, the sexual harasser needs sexual favor from a victim, either punishing or rewarding the sufferer in a certain way.

Secondly, a hostile environment for a type of sexual harassment involving a victim subjected to severe and unwelcomed or pervasive recurrent sexual innuendoes, sexual comments, touching, comments, or other kinds of sexual nature that causes an offensive or intimidating place for workers to perform their duties. Submission to sexual conduct happens when either implicitly or explicitly a condition or a term of a person’ s employment. Rejection of or submission of such behavior by a person can serve a reason for work decisions influencing such a person.

Moreover, such behavior has the effect or purpose of unreasonably interfering with a person’ s work creating or performance and hostile, intimidating, or offensive working setting. A sexual victim can agree or consent to certain behavior and actively take part in it even though it is objectionable or offensive. Thus, sexual behavior is unwelcome whenever the individual subjected to the conduct finds it unwelcome. Whether an individual in fact welcomed demand for sex-related comment, date or joke relies on all the situations (O'Leary-Kelly & Bowes-Sperry 2001). Sexual harassment involves issues like attempted or actual sexual assault or rape, an undesired force for sexual favors, undesired intentional leaning over, touching, pinching, or concerning.

Sexual harassment also entails undesirable sexual gestures or looks, unwanted telephone, letters, and sexual materials. Sexual harassment also constitutes an unnecessary force for dates, sexual jokes, teasing, questions, or remarks, catcalls, whistling, stories, innuendos, fantasies, history, or and preferences among others (Rosewarne 2007).


Antecol, H, Barcus, VE, & Cobb-Clark, D 2009, ‘Gender-biased behavior at work: Exploring the relationship between sexual harassment and sex discrimination’, Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 782-792

Brackenridge, C 2000, ‘Harassment, Sexual Abuse, and Safety of the Female Athlete’, Clinics in Sports Medicine, Vol.19, No. 2, pp. 187-198

McDonald, P, Charlesworth, S, & Cerise, S 2011, ‘Below the “tip of the iceberg”: Extra-legal responses to workplace sexual harassment’, Women's Studies International Forum, Vol.34, No. 4, pp. 278-289

O'Leary-Kelly, AM & Bowes-Sperry, L 2001, ‘Sexual harassment as unethical behavior: the role of moral intensity’, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 11, No. 1–2, pp.73-92

Paludi, M 2006, Understanding workplace violence: a guide for managers and employees, Praeger, Westport, Conn. Pp. 54-70.

Rees, N 2008, Australian anti-discrimination law: text, cases, and materials, Federation Press, Sydney. Pp. 494-550.

Ritzer, G 2011, The concise encyclopedia of sociology, Wiley -Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex, U.K. Malden, MA. Pp. 538-550.

Rosewarne, L 2007, ‘Pin-ups in public space: Sexist outdoor advertising as sexual harassment’, Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 313-325

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