Essays on HRM-Training and Development in the Workplace Literature review

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The paper 'HRM-Training and Development in the Workplace" is a good example of a human resources literature review. In the modern world, the business environment is constantly changing with most organizations focusing on developing their services and products to operate globally as well as expand the competencies of their customers with an aim of meeting the changing demands. In order to attain the aforementioned objectives, the need for human resources to broaden their skills as well as other interpersonal and technical skills is of great importance. Additionally, the job roles and tasks are constantly changing with most organizations expecting their employees to be in a position to undertake responsibilities and perform tasks that were previously reserved for the management only. Technological changes in particular information technology have resulted in a rapid generation of knowledge.

In the period between 1900 and 1950, human knowledge has doubled and the trend has been the same over every 5 to 8 years. Knowledge is quickly becoming and hence there is a need to double employees’ knowledge so as to keep up with the emerging changes. According to Philips (1996) to mass production is something of the past as customers have become more selective.

This is because increased consumer demands do not only require new solutions but also knowledge. Furthermore, as a result of increased competition Cotton (1995) points out that organizations need to revise their managerial methods, service and product mix as well as increase their productivity. Consequently, modern conditions of sophisticated information technology, market globalization, and knowledge, economy have altered the existing relationship to the importance of human resources in the organizations. The mentioned conditions actualize organization human capital as the most strategic resource.

In the context of globalization, turbulent and complex environment, knowledge has become the only reliable and effective source of competitive advantage (Cheng & Hampson, 2008).  


Cheng. E.W.L. & Hampson, I. (2008) ‘Transfer of Training: A review and new insights’, International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(4), pp.327-341.

Cotton, J. (1995) The theory of learning strategies: An introduction. London: Kogan Page.

Darby, J.A. (2006) „Evaluating training courses: an exercise in social desirability? Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(3), pp.227-239.

CIPD (2008). Learning and Development Survey. London: CIPD.

Horwitz, F.M. (1999) ‘The emergence of strategic training and development: The current state of

play’, Journal of European Industrial Training,23(4/5), pp.180-190.

Mabey, C., G. Salaman, & Storey.J (1998). Strategic human resource management: London: A reader Sage.

Philips, J.J. (1996) ‘How much is the training worth?’, Training and Development, 50(4), pp.20


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