The paper "Casual and Part-Time Workers in Australia " is a perfect example of human resources coursework. During the past thirty years, the world has witnessed major social and economic changes. This has been much more intense in the industrialised nations, like Australia. In Australia, the sudden growth of the economy introduced new forms of employment opportunities and arrangements (Esposto, 2008). This resulted in inequality in the earning capacity of individuals. The number of casual and part-time workers in Australia has increased over the past two decades. Casual labour is increasing in several industries, like the retail industry, hospitality, manufacturing, and communications.
Other industries, such as finance and insurance are also employing a large number of casual and part-time workers. Research studies have disclosed that casual employment is linked to training at a low – level and insignificant career opportunities. (Watson, Contented workers in Inferior Jobs? Re-Assessing Casual Employment in Australia, 2005, p. 372). Moreover, the workplace environment will not be satisfactory for casual workers; and such workers are subjected to adverse occupational health and safety outcomes. The increase of such workers was at its height in the 1990s.
Thereafter, the number of casual workers showed a constant increase. During the decade 1990 to 2000, the number of casuals increased from 19% to 27%. However, during the same period, the number of regular and full-time workers had increased from 6% to 12%. In the manufacturing field, the number of casual employees had doubled during the period from 1985 to 2002. The corresponding increase was three times in communications, finance, and insurance (Watson, Contented workers in Inferior Jobs? Re-Assessing Casual Employment in Australia, 2005, p.
372). Casual workers are the most disadvantaged group in the workforce, and they cannot secure long-term employment. Companies change such workers frequently, who, therefore, do not enjoy job security. Such workers are not allowed to participate in the decision-making process. They constitute the most marginalised group of employees in the Australian workforce. This is due to the ineffectiveness of the Labour law system of Australia. Businesses are undergoing dynamic change, from the past twenty years. Most of the companies are reducing their overhead costs by removing non-profitable and non-important aspects in their businesses.
Many companies are getting rid of non-core aspects. This process is termed as vertical disintegration, and it brings about changes to the existing employment arrangements (Arup, 2006, p. 542). It is essential for a low-cost producer to focus on issues, such as overheads, components and raw materials, services and outsourcing, research and development, investment strategies, human resources and identification of services and main products (Reducing Costs to Boost Profits). Outsourcing is one such transformation. Companies outsource non-core aspects to other companies, and business is conducted through the outsourced companies.
These outsourcing companies form a component of supply chains and franchisees. The changes in business cause an increase in unemployment, as a significant number of workers lose their jobs. New forms of employment arrangements gain importance, and workers are engaged in alternative ways, such as part-time employees. Many of the workers are employed under independent employment contracts (Arup, 2006, p. 542). Some of the workers have established their own independent businesses. As such, the optimal utilisation of working capital has enabled several corporate treasuries to ensure cost efficiency (Finance and Treasury Management Navigating the way, 2008).
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