IntroductionGlobalization has become a common phenomenon in the world today. Globalization refers to the process whereby integrations and interactions exist among companies, governments and people from various nations. It is driven by investment, international trade and it is strongly supported by information technology. The process affects the culture, environment, political systems, prosperity, economic development and the physical well being of people in various societies in the world. The transfer and borrowing of policies have a big contribution to globalization. This happens when policies and practices converge. Many nations in the world both advanced and developing are partakers of the borrowing and transfer of policies.
The UK has had a lot of influence in its HRD and HRM policy and practices when it comes to policy transfer and borrowing Beck (1999). Globalization has various facets which are discussed in this paper. There are various hindrances to the transfer of policies. Culture and institutional frame work are among them. This paper examines these issues plus others such as theorization of globalization, work practices and the experience of work, as well as the cultural approach to the transfer and borrowing of policies.
Finally it also carries an exposition on the assessment of the usefulness of best practices in regional policy on human resource. Policy transfer and policy borrowingPolicy transfer is explained as a process through which policies, knowledge and administrative arrangements are moved from a given nation or even a policy domain to a different nation or policy domain. This process is believed to be intentional and it involves learning and not just an unintentional evolutionary process in which those governments that have similar issues discover the same solution.
It is also believed to be voluntary even though it may be coercive. It is common practice to various countries especially those that believe they can make things better by emulating the practices and policies being used by another country that seems to be successful in the area concerned. Policy transfer is harmless as long as it is well carried out and all the possible constraints are put under check. Many examples abound of countries that have borrowed or transferred policies and practices into their own systems Dale (1999).
The UK has been a borrower of education policies from the USA even though this practice has not given them the success that the same policies produce in the United States. China has slowly allowed western economic practices to permeate its formerly strongly guarded borders and today certain Western characteristics are evident its management of institutions and organizations. However large scale policy transfer and borrowing has been hampered by communism and cultural issues such as language. In a national government, lower government levels and various sectors can be compelled to emulate the practices of others.
Policy transfer may lead to convergence of policies hence globalization Dale (1999). Policy borrowing on the other hand may not be very much different from policy transfer. The small existing difference comes in when the recipient of the policies being transferred is the object of focus.