The key elements that make not just ‘good’ jobs but ‘smart’ jobsArticle 1 Title: Causal inferences between participation in decision making task attributes, work effort, rewards, job satisfaction and commitmentAuthors: Brenda Scott-Ladd, Anthony Travaglione and Verena MarshallSource: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, pp. 399 - 414Abstract: The paper is premised on the fact that regulatory frameworks in Australia encourage promote employee participation and decision making on grounds that participation benefits work effort, commitment and job satisfaction. Although this is supported by literature, there is little evidence that frameworks of causal inference in the relationship are clearly comprehended.
The survey therefore aimed to study the structural and causal inference between participation and decision making and the work environment. The paper finds that participation in decision making is apparently a motivator for job satisfaction and commitment, while work effort and task variety encourage participation. The practical implications of the article include the fact that although participation in the decision making process positively affects work effort, commitment and autonomy, practitioners should be mindful to maintain a balance between employer and employee needs.
Summary of the article: The study evaluates the role that participation plays within a decentralised employee relations atmosphere that purports to encourage greater involvement of employees. Conclusions made include the fact that affectively committed employees also seem to be more inclined toward job satisfaction, rewards, and work effort. Strengths: The paper is focused on the modern organisation which tends to have a workforce that is well educated and technically oriented. Weaknesses: The results cannot be generalised to a larger population or even another region or country because of the use of quantitative, self reported data.
Another weakness is that the causality that is referred to in the paper is merely inferred and therefore not quantifiable. Results of the research: The researchers found out that there is positive relationship between participation in decision making and other constructs of the work environment. This means that the nature of work determines how much effort is put into doing it by the employees and this ultimately affects their participation as well as satisfaction in doing the job. Why the exemplar article is a good reference: The article presents very well researched work and study conducted by renowned researcher from various universities in Australia.
The paper focuses on the key element of decision making in organisation and how these can affect job performance and job satisfaction The paper also addresses other elements of job design and how they relate to participation in the process and ultimately to affective commitment and job satisfaction the design used are well explained and detailed Key issues addressed by the paper: Role that employees play in making decisions that affect job designThe importance of participation in decision makingThe link between participation in decision making, work effort, commitment and job satisfaction Article 2 Title: Reintegrating job design and career theory: Creating not just good jobs but smart jobsAuthors: Douglas T.
(Tim) Hall and Mireia Las HerasSource: Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 31, 2010, pp. 448-462.Abstract: This paper seeks to review the relationship between careers and jobs. It notes that these terms have been prominent in many headlines and conversations, yet they are not well understood. Thus, according to the authors, in the modern organisation needs to tighten the belt and understand these terms so as to derive the best out of its resources.
The authors thus review what should be done to workplaces to make workers more productive, satisfied and enjoy learning on the job. Since a series of jobs creates a career, it is important to have employees satisfied into order to motivate them to build their careers. The authors’ main focus is to determine what the design of a job contributes to the understanding of a career and what existing literature contributed to the design of jobs.
Summary of the article: The article is focused on the idea of job designing jogs to make them not just good but smart. As companies seek to reduce personnel costs, they need to redesign work in such a way that jobs become friendlier to employees, promote satisfaction as well as learning. Additionally, the authors note the significance of the current workforce, which tends to be better educated and skilled and is therefore interested in job designs that fist their preferences. The article thus emphasises the need to have a person-job fit to ensure that the integration of career goals of employees and business goals of the organisation is achieved.
This according to the authors can be achieved by changing the nature of the workplace. Research design: the research involved two sets of data collected from three industry sectors at an interval of 18 months. Strengths: The main key point by the authors is that employers should design their jobs in a manner that enables employees to be more productive, more satisfied and determined to learn - called smart jobs.
This according to them will in turn ensure that employers get the best return for the resources they have invested in various jobs. Weaknesses: The issues addressed by the authors are mainly based on reviews of existing research. The study fails to include a practical survey of focus on particular organisation that has created the so called smart job. Therefore, it is not possible to determine whether in deed smart jobs exist, and even if they exist, there is no practical evidence that they are more satisfying that the not smart jobs.
Why the exemplar article is a good reference: The article is a well written review base on wide reference of sources. The authors are renowned personalities from the Boston University, USA and the University of Navarra, Spain. The article particularly reviews issues regarding job designs in the past and how they have changed in the modern organisation. Key issues addressed by the authors include: How career theory and research can contribute to job design Career issues such as training and educationCareer intelligence Career orientation, goals, anchors and interests, and how they affect job performance and satisfaction How to design smart jobs to stimulate employee career growth Article 3: Title: Effects of satisfaction with communication on the relationship between individual-job congruence and job performance/satisfactionAuthors: Jose R.
GorisSource: Journal of Management Development, Vol. 26 Issue 8, 2007, pp. 737 - 752Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to assess the moderating impact of communication satisfaction on the relationships between individual-job congruence and both job satisfaction and job performance. The major findings made by the authors are that satisfaction with communication received work weak support as a moderator of the individual-job fit model.
However, it received strong support as the major predictor of both satisfaction and performance. Summary of the article: The authors note that satisfaction with communication received support as a moderator, but received much stronger support as a predictor. This means that good communication in the workplace is a fundamental part of job design and therefore a determinant of satisfaction. As such, the authors point out that satisfaction with communication has a profound impact on job satisfaction and job performance.
Research design: A total of 629 employees from two companies located in the USA comprised the original sample. 17 were however excluded because of various reasons, leaving 612 individuals. 302 participants completed the survey instruments and thus formed the sample. Strengths: The study touches on a number of important factors that should be considered during job design, including communication management, job description, job design itself, job satisfaction, employee communications and individual psychology. Weaknesses: The method of data analysis used is rather difficult to understandWhy the exemplar article is a good reference: The paper gives an account of a well conducted and study that touched on the issues surrounding job design, communication in the workplace, and job satisfaction.
The researcher is a lecturer at the school of business at Andrews University in Michigan, USA. The research was conducted using an established methodology and initially targeted a large sample. Reasons for the reduction in the sample size are also outlined. Key issues addressed by the author include: Issues faced when trying to promote satisfaction and communication among employeesThe complexity of managing organisation communication processes and enhancing communication satisfaction Challenges encountered when trying to promote favourable communication attitudes in organisational life Communication as a key consideration in job design and how this affects job performance and job satisfaction How the three articles contribute to my research question The three articles have been selected from a total of 20 articles that I reviewed for this research.
Two articles are based on a practice assessment of the various factors that affect job design and job performance and job satisfaction. One article is a review of the issues involved in creating worker friendly jobs and hence developing careers.
The first and third articles highlight how to develop a link between the individual and the job, while the second article focuses on how to make this fit even better How the three articles help to clarify my research question Three articles help to add weight to my research question: “what are the key features of a smart job? ” Traditionally, good jobs were premised on progression from one post to another in a given firm.
But this is changing as the workforce becomes more educated and skilled, and is thus motivated by extra factors other than progression along the same line. This means that it is no longer enough to have good jobs; the jobs should be accommodating to the doers The three articles point to what leads to job satisfaction including decision making, better communication and so forth. Since the talents professional of today are not those that will stay in the same place for long, it is important to assess what motivates them to move.
In short, I want to determine what makes a good job for the current professionals. Precisely, the articles will help me to determine a how to change from a mere good job to a smart job