Driving Forces for Organizational ChangeIntroductionApple Incorporated is a large corporation with many product lines. One of their major strengths as a company stems from the popularity of one of their products, the iPod. The iPod has put Apple on the map in the MP3 world and has brought their other products to the forefront with it. The major strength that the iPhone Ultimate brings to the table is that it provides many different functions all in one handheld device. By combining several popular features into their new product while feeding off the success of the iPod and the original iPhone, Apple Incorporated has played on their strengths in this industry.
Apple Company has gone through significant changes. This change was internally driven. Besides this, there are many other driving forces for this change. Organizational change is a concept that regularly occurs due to the nature of today’s business environment. (McNamara, 2006, 238) It is common in business communications, strategy, management and leadership. (McNamara, 2006, 239) Change occurs when an organization revolutionizes parts or its entire strategy and/or wants to change the way it operates.
(McNamara, 2006, 240) Thus, it involves the realigning of organizational processes and operations. In order to remain competitive and successful in today’s business environment, organizations must continually undergo changes by being innovative. (McNamara, 2006, 240) Therefore, change plays a major role in the longevity, maturity, and success of any organization. In today’s business environment, there are many factors that compel organizations to change internally or externally. "Organizations must change because their environments change, ” according to Andrew Sturdy in his article Management Beneath and Beyond Organizational Change Management: Exploring Alternatives.
(Sturdy, 2003, p. 652) Today, businesses are bombarded by incredibly high rates of change from a large number of internal and external sources. (Nadler, 1981, 193) On the other hand, external pressures tend to arise from changes in the legal, competitive, technological, and economic environments. People have deep attachments to their organization’s normal work groups, duties, processes, and operations. (McNamara, 2006, 241) Therefore, every internally driven change in an organization experiences some level or sort of resistance. Change resistance involves the pessimistic feelings and thoughts about a change(s) in an organization.
(McNamara, 2006, 242) It can result in jeopardizing or experiencing losses in productivity and profitability in an organization. (Oreg, 2006, 88) Thus, managing and overcoming the resistance to change in an organization is essential to its survival. Organizational change proposals often come about as a result of problems faced by an organization. According to McNamara (2007), “Change commonly occurs because the organization experiences some difficulty, ” (McNamara, 2006, 242) Internal driving forces or factors that stimulate change originate from inside the organization via employees and/or managers. Some internal driving forces that influence or stimulate organizational change are budget, working conditions, and/or internal politics.
Thus, the decision to implement organizational change can arise from problems that the organizations face or from presented opportunities. Some examples are: when an organization reallocates its resources to enter a new area of business or when an organization makes productivity improvements to increase cost efficiency.