The paper 'Conceptual Skills for Managers' is a great example of a Management Annotated Bibliography. Modern managers are exposed to modern threats and opportunities whenever it comes to decision making and problem-solving. Famous business philosopher Gardner (1993, p. 2) defines management as “ the process of persuasion and example by which an individual (or management team) induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’ s purpose, or the shared purposes of all. ” In business organizations, conceptual management’ s role is typically performed by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO).
Some notable CEO’ s with stronger conceptual skills in American history include Bill Gates (of Microsoft), Jack Welch and Jeffrey Immelt (of General Electric), Steve Jobs (of Apple), Alfred Sloan (of General Motors), Sam Walton (of Wal-Mart), Lee Iacocca, and Warren Buffet. In the section that follows, we shall examine the management style of Jack Welch. Authentic managers desire to serve genuinely and are specifically interest in facilitating individuals than they are in authority and power, prestige, or money. The authors say that most of the managers are directed by the specific qualities of passion, heart, and compassion, as they are by the characters of the mind, imagination and, are of conceptual skills.
George supports a single global standard for ethics and defines five distinctive dimensions of the particular term ‘ authentic management’ as understanding their primary purpose-passion; practicing hard values-behavior; leading entirely with heart-compassion; establishing relationships- connectedness; representing self-discipline- steadiness by using emotional quotient. Goldsmith, Greenberg (2003) conducted a survey of two hundred future chief executive officers in one hundred and twenty international organizations to exhibit their attitudes and approaches connected to global management. Their main approach was to inquire about people as to how they view the future of management.
One main finding was that the future managers in the global arena would require having a monetary and financial understanding of the global economy, an awareness of the variety of cultures, an understanding of regional and global markets and ease with diversity tension- the capability to direct this energy more effectively with maximum conceptual skills. Katz (1990) stressed the necessity to falsify and nurture partnerships from belief in the capabilities, accountability, and trust of partners.
They suggested that for the purpose of retaining managers organizations should exhibit respect, create flourishing environments, provide extensive training and coaching, reward achievements, provide feedback, and last but not least listen. Listening, as per authors, is the most probably the one absolutely essential capability for a global conceptual leader to become successful as listening in fact leads to learning. The notion of learning is about other, self, firm, and the industry. Goldsmith, Greenberg state that there are specific items that evolved from their work as most significant for the future.
They are thinking globally; appreciating cultural diversity; developing technological know-how; building alliances and partnerships; and sharing management. Irrespective of which management style is adopted, Mintzberg states that business managers (CEOs) typically accomplish a set of ten roles, divided into interpersonal roles (where the CEO performs the figurehead role and acts as both the leader and the liaison), informational roles (where he plays the role of a disseminator, spokesman, and the monitor), and decisional role (where the CEO must act as a disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator, and entrepreneur). According to Katz, in the performance of these roles, effective CEOs share a set of common characteristics: they are able to craft an engaging vision for the organization and to secure buy-in and support from the followers, they encourage risk-taking and innovation, they are able to instill accountability in the followers, communicate extensively with the followers with an opportunity for feedback, and have the capacity to both accept and handle unintended outcomes.
In performing their management roles, Baldoni (2005, p. 11) states that CEOs typically go through seven steps, which include: “ vision, alignment, execution, risk, discipline, courage, and results” (Katz 1940).
Baldoni, J. 2005. How Great Managers get Great results. McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN-13: 9780071464871.
Byrne, J. 1998. “How Jack Welch Runs GE: a Close-Up Look at how America’s No.1 Manager Runs G.E.” BusinessWeek. Retrieved on 12 Mar 2008 from http://www.businessweek.com/1998/23/b3581001.htm
Gardner, J. 1993. On Management, New York: Free Press. ISBN: 0029113121
Krames, J. 2002.The Jack Welch Lexicon of Management. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN: 0071381406.
Kreitner & Kinicki. (2003). Organizational Behavior, 6th Edition. McGraw Hill Companies.
Katz, R. (1974). Skills of An Effective Administrator http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml;jsessionid=OFFURVEPI1YLCAKRGWDR5VQBKE0YIISW?id=74509&referral=2340
Wilson, L. S., Boudreaux, M. A., and Edwards, M. 2000. High-Performance Management at the Individual Level. Advances in Developing Human Resources, May 1, 2(2): 73 - 103.
Ellinger, A. D., Watkins, K. E., and Barnas, C. M. 1999. Responding to New Roles: A Qualitative Study of Managers as Instructors. Management Learning, December 1, 1999; 30(4): 387 - 412.
Holton, E. F. and Lynham, S. A. 2000. Performance-Driven Management Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, May 1, 2(2): 1 - 17.