The paper "Purpose and History of Management" is an outstanding example of management coursework. Management is a concept that has been evolving over time. In the early days of its inception, most theorists and organizations seemed to advocate for the traditional form of management in which the top management was the overall decision-maker and was responsible for virtually every bit of the day-to-day running of the organization. In this form of management, the employees were only but implementers of the decisions and objectives set by the top management. In recent years, however, things have changed.
Management is rapidly taking a different form in which managers are adopting a hands-off approach where employees are being allowed to literally take charge of the running of the organization. All the manager has to do is set up proper structures, delegate, and also inspire the employees to see and help pursue the vision and mission conceptualized by both the manager and their employees. In this modern management approach, it is assumed and expected that employees are fully involved in their work and are capable to manage themselves well even in the absence of their manager(s) (Flores & Utley, 2000). This paper, therefore, presents a discussion on the statement, “ Employee involvement programs stress that substantial amounts of the work done by managers are unnecessary because it simply supports a command and control approach to management which is not needed when employees are involved in their work and are capable of self-managing” as adopted from Lawler (1994).
Specifically, the paper takes an overview of management as a concept, discusses the purpose and historical evolution of the concept of management, and the impact the environment has on management. An Overview of Management Different scholars have defined management differently depending on their perspective of what the concept of management actually entails.
According to Adetule (2011), management may be defined as a mechanism through which people are coordinated and facilitated to achieve the set objectives and goals of an organization. A simple but comprehensive definition of management was coined by Mary Parker Follett in which she defined management as a system in which people are used to accomplishing tasks in an organizational setting (McLean, 2005). Management involves four main functions i. e.
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Planning refers to the selection of activities to be done for organizational success, explaining the technique of accomplishing those tasks, and setting the timelines for their accomplishment. Organizing, on the other hand, refers to the process of delegating duties to various individuals or teams within an organization. Leading, however, is the provision of guidance to individuals and teams in the organization on how the set objectives and goals can be accomplished. Finally, controlling may be defined as the evaluation of the success so far, measuring any deviations, and proposing corrective mechanisms if need be. Ideally, therefore, it is expected that the role of a manager entails accomplishing all the aforementioned four functions of management i. e.
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Traditional mechanisms of management tended to focus more on organizing, planning, and controlling leaving out leadership. With the recent employee involvement programs, though, there has been a need for managers to value, motivate, and inspire employees into management. This is where leadership becomes relevant as a function of management in today’ s management practices (Aktouf, 1992).