Essays on International and Comparative HRM Coursework

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It is quite important to state that the paper 'International and Comparative HRM" is a perfect example of human resources coursework.   There is increasing awareness of the significance of human resource management (HRM) in the global context and more understanding of the international dimensions. In the current world discussions concerning cross-national boundary, human resource management suggests that culture-free and culture-bound variables and factors are significant determinants of human resource management practices as well as policies. HRM is depicted as context-specific and it is explained that with the emerging new markets across the globe, and enhanced levels of globalization of business and competition, there is a need to explore cross-national human resource management studies.

It is predicted that India and China will disrupt workforces, companies, markets and industries greatly in the coming decades (Armstrong, 2012). Demographic and cultural dimensions have an impact on the human resource strategy of the organization. More women have been incorporated in the labour force and have risen to management level than before. There are points of convergence and divergence from the national and global realm while as the organizational level sets the pace for the ability of the business to compete at any other level.

Employers have a great challenge of attracting and keeping the best human resource capital through competitive pay and motivation. Labour and capital transfer have been enhanced with the growth in globalization in the world. Outsourcing has become a way that some organizations meet their human resource needs where they are not able to produce their best (Torrington et al, 2009). Offshore production of functions in countries where the cost of labour is low and has advanced technology has become the order of the day.

The labour union relationship with the employer is very important to the welfare of the employee. The government plays an important role in the legislation of labour laws and its ideology will be used to implement various policies that influence the operation of the business. This essay explores human resource from the national, global and organizational context while dwelling the employer-employee relationship to discuss labour relations. National context: Organizational and national culture is very important in defining the practices of an organization or the environment from within which it operates.

Even where the organization has to explore the international market, it has to understand the local context that will venture into to avoid cross-culture challenges. Culture is broadly applied to explain differences within human groups in spite of it not having a universally accepted definition (Jawad & Ö zbilgin, 2010). Culture characterizes a group rather than single individuals and refers to the expression of ways of behaving and thinking that define a group and sets it apart from the rest. Culture develops gradually and it is the outcome of successful adaptation by a particular group to a particular environment.

Culture has various forms or expressions that involve behaviours, artefacts, beliefs and values. The organizational culture the decision-making patterns and values systems of an organization. Cultural change is crucial before implementing any strategic plans and changes. Social groups can be distinguished in the manner in which they portray a certain pattern of observable behavior. Organizational and national culture all contribute to organizational success. Equal treatment in terms of pay and responsibilities ensures that no gender is discriminated against (Varma & Budhwar, 2013).

More women are working mothers and many have risen to the management level than before. The human resource objectives have to be realistic and achievable within a reasonable timeframe. Demographic factors such as level of education, gender, training, and age determine the policies that will be implemented by the organization to get the best workers. Training needs will be presented with the kind of workers that an organization has.


Ackers, P. & Wilkinson, A. 2005, British Industrial Relations Paradigm: A Critical Outline History and Prognosis, Journal of Industrial Relations, 47(4): 443-56.

Armstrong, M., 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page Publishers, New York.

Condrey, S. E., 2005, Handbook of Human Resources Management in Government, John Wiley & Sons, London.

Jawad, S., & Özbilgin, M. F., 2010, Managing Cultural Diversity in Asia: A Research Companion, Edward Elgar Publishing, Melbourne.

Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A., 2008, Human resource management at work: people management and development, 4th ed. CIPD, London.

Stone, D., & Stone-Romero, E., 2012, The Influence of Culture on Human Resource Management Processes and Practices, Psychology Press, Melbourne.

Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. & Atkinson, C., 2009, Fundamentals of human resource management: managing people at work, Pearson Education, Harlow.

Varma, A., & Budhwar, P.S., 2013, Managing Human Resources in Asia-Pacific, 2E: Second, Routledge, London.

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