Essays on Organizational and National Cultures - Understanding their Linkages and Divergences Literature review

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper “ Organizational and National Cultures - Understanding their Linkages and Divergences” is a comprehensive  example of the literature review on human resources. In contemporary times of globalization, organizational culture cannot possibly exclude from a national culture because of the simple existence of the fact that they are interrelated to each other. Adding to this are some of the factors in the globalization of most companies like the persistent improvement in international traveling, speedy and widespread international ‘ communication’ , brisk expansion and transmission of latest technological elements and ‘ e-commerce’ , ‘ free trade’ , ‘ education’ and ‘ knowledge sharing’ , a great number of citizens migrating from one country to another, demand on lowering costs, exploration of ‘ new markets’ , and ‘ homogenization of culture’ (Author, date). In this sense, it is of great importance to consider the integration of the latter in creating a much better international organization particularly in relating the activities within a particular organization and even the interactions outside the organization.

However, in an event of extreme differences of national culture to an international organization, would it still be plausible to develop a strong organizational culture? With proper consideration of its implications, could divergences of national culture to organizational culture be helpful or obstructive in various functions and activities of an international organization in developing a much stronger organizational culture?

Nonetheless, in order to answers these questions and the possible repercussions of their linkages and divergences, it is necessary to understand first the very nature of culture per se to further the appreciation of both national and organizational cultures. CultureIn the very essence of culture, both Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede suggest, in their book entitled ‘ Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind’ (2005), that culture is the combined mental state of people being programmed and which it ultimately differentiates individuals belonging in a group apart from other grouping of persons.


Adler, N & Gundersen, A 2007. ‘International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior’. 5th edn. South-Western College Pub.

Björkman, I & Galunic, C 2004, ‘Integrative case study Lincoln Electric in China’ in Briscoe and Schuler, International human resource management, 2nd ed, Routledge, Great Britain, pp. 420-435.

De Cieri, H & Dowling, P ‘Strategic international human resource management in multinational enterprises: developments and directions’ pp.15-30.

Dowling, P 1999, ‘Completing the Puzzle: Issues in the Development of the Field of International Human Resource Management’, Management International Review, Gabler Verlag, p. 27.

Evans, P 1993, ‘Dosing the glue: Applying human resource technology to build global organizations’ in Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management pp. 21–54.

Goulet, P & Schweiger, ‘Managing culture and human resources in mergers and acquisitions‘, pp. 405-426.

Hofstede, G & Hofstede, G P 2005, Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Rosenzweig, P ‘The dual logics behind international human resource management: pressures for global integration and local responsiveness’ pp. 36-48.

Schuler, R & Jackson, S 1987, ‘Linking Competitive Strategies with Human Resource Management Practices’ in The Academy of Management, New York University, pp. 207-219.

Short, D & Callahan, J 2005, ‘’Would I Work for a Global Corporation?’ And Other Ethical Questions for HRD’ in Human Resource Development International, Routledge, USA, pp. 121-125.

Author, date ,‘Culture and human resource management’, edition, Name of publication, .pp. 160-175.

Author, date ,‘The global organization’, edition, Name of publication, .pp.253-289.

Author, date ,‘The globalization of human resource management’, edition, Name of publication, .pp.9-39.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us