Essays on Aspects of International Human Resource Management Thesis

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

Alibaba Company was founded by Jack Ma in 1999 with the main purpose of enabling small enterprises to benefit from innovation and technology in order to grow and compete favorably with other companies both in the domestic and international economies (Alibaba Group, 2013). The company began as a small technology venture with eighteen people with its headquarters in Hangzhou. The founders of the company believed that this was a profitable way to leverage the internet as a medium for economic exchange that would help small business owners in a way that had not been realized in China (Alibaba Group, 2013).

With companies such as eBay and Amazon dominating the market especially in the west, Alibaba saw this as an opportunity to satisfy a vacant economic gap in China. Currently, the company has grown and employs over 24,000 people in 70 cities across the world with several subsidiaries. The subsidiaries that are owned by the Alibaba group company include; Alibaba. com, Taobao, eTao, Yahoo! China, Alipay, Aloft, and Alimama which are the main ones (Alibaba Group, 2013). In its 15 years of existence, Alibaba has been characterized by challenges and successes that have enabled the company to expand its capital through strategic acquisitions and partnerships.

In the year 2005, the company merged with Yahoo in a partnership which consequently led to its acquisition of Yahoo Operations in China (Jacob and Gough, 2014). In addition to this, in 2009 the company was able to buy HiChina one of the most renowned and internet infrastructures in China. With its multiple acquisitions, the company expanded and launched educational programs on e-commerce that was open for both marketers and buyers.

This was followed by Alibaba Group listings on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in the year 2007. Recently in 2014, the company made history by launching an Initial Public Offering on the New York Stock Exchange where the stock began at $68.00 and ended at $98.89. Consequently, enabling the company to set a new record within its category in the stock exchange (Jacob and Gough, 2014) The e-commerce company is currently listed as one of the biggest IPO in the world. Alibaba’ s current competitors include; Amazon, eBay, and Facebook of which it all beat in the recently concluded IPO.

Critics argue that Alibaba has emerged to be more powerful than its competitors, eBay and Amazon combined which existed before it was founded (Jacob and Gough, 2014). The company is believed to value between $150billion and $200billion. According to Chiang and Lin (2014) Alibaba, the main focus of Alibaba is to develop and implement an integrated delivery infrastructure within China and across the world. 1.3 Contextual Analysis of Alibaba Group Company Alibaba Group Company is currently rated second in the net income category.

When compared with other related companies, the company is reported to have 46.54 of current valuation per net income (Walvaren, 2009). The company stands as a unique business enterprise that is among the few companies in China that did not copy already existing models from either Europe or the U. S (Walvaren, 2009). In 2012 the company handled an estimated $170 billion sales from two of its portals.   According to Wei (2007) Alibaba Company is a global leader in business-to-business (B2B) with its subsidiary Alibaba. com Limited being the largest online market place for both international and domestic customers.

Web services provided by the company have expanded the Alibaba Group Company to offer business management solutions and retail websites services. This has contributed towards the success of the company making it one of the largest and successful comprehensive providers of internet retail and Business-to-Business services (Wei, 2007). According to Walraven (2009), Alibaba has been successful in implementing its business model. The e-commerce company has facilitated a 24/7 online platform that allows suppliers and buyers to interact across the world without moving.

Since it was founded the company has constantly made improvements on its brand and has gone beyond and connected Chinese business people with the rest of the world. This way it has managed to maintain high levels of customer loyalty due to the improvements. The company has used its web services to engage consumers while reducing operating costs and at the same time obtain large profits. Walvaren (2009) affirms that the structures of the business model by Alibaba Company are efficient, flexible and responsive in meeting the customers’ demands as well as enhance networking with partners as well as sustaining reliable revenue streams.

Alibaba Company continues to impress its customers with the services it provides including, electronic payments, cloud computing services which are data-centric and search engines for shopping. These services have made the company to be more powerful and customer-oriented than its competitors. In 2013 the company served over 231 million customers who spent a sum of $248 billion on Alibaba’ s web portals, with these sales the company had sold more than what eBay and Amazon combined. CEO Jonathan Lu attributes their success to customers who are the first priority to the company (Jessica, 2015).

References

Adelman, I & Morris, C. T. (1967). Society, politics and economic development: A quantitative approach. Baltimore, MA: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Aharoni, Y. (2006). Book review: The Regional multinationals MNEs and global strategic management, International Business Review, vol. 15(4):439-446.

Alibaba Group. (2013). History and Milestones. [Online]. Retrieved From: http://www.alibabagroup.com/en/about/history. (Accessed on 28th April 2015)

Alibabagroup.com. (2014). Alibaba Group History and Milestones. Retrieved From: http://www.alibabagroup.com/en/about/history

Ando, N. (2012). The Ownership Structure of Foreign Subsidiaries and the Effect of Institutional Distance: A Case Study of Japanese Firms. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18(2): 259-274.

Ball, D. (2005). Too Many Cooks. Wall Street Journal.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Batjargal, B. (2007). Internet entrepreneurship: social capital, human capital, and performance of internet ventures in China. Research Policy, 36(5): 605-618.

Briscoe, D., Schuler, R. S. and Claus, L. (2009). International Human Resource Management 3e. London: Routledge.

Briscoe, D.R and Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policy and Practice for the Global Enterprise, 2nd Ed. London; Taylor and Francis Group

Burr, W. & Fischmann, B. (2008) "The Regional Multinationals, MNEs and "Global" Strategic Management", Management International Review (MIR), 48(1): 137-140.

Chau, P.Y.K., Cole, M., Massey, A. P., Montoya-Weiss, M., & O’Keefe, R. M. (2002). Cultural Differences in the Online Behavior of Consumers, Communications of the ACM, 45(10): 138 143.

Chiang, J. and Lin, C. (2014). Mobile and Rural: Dual Engines for Alibaba’s Future. Forbes. [Online] Retrieved From: http://forbes.com/sites/ceibs/2014/11/10/mobile-and-rural-dual-engines-for-alibabas-future/. (Accessed on 26th April 2015)

China Internet Information Center (CNNIC). (2007). 19th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China. [Online]. Available at http://www.cnnic.net.cn/en/index/0O/02/index.htm. (Accessed on 1st May 2015)

China Internet Information Center (CNNIC). (2003) 11th Statistical Survey on the Internet Development in China. [Online]. Available at http://www.cnnic.net.cn/en/index/0O/02/index.htm. (Accessed on 27th April 2015)

China Internet Information Center (CNNIC). (2005). China Online Search Market Survey Report 2005. Available at http://www.cnnic.net.cn/download/2005/2005083101.pdf. (Accessed on 20th April 2015)

Cunningham, M.T. (1986).Strategies for International Industrial Marketing. Croom Helm.

Dhanaraj, C. (2007). Managing the Embedded Multinational: A Business Network View, Journal of International Business Studies, 38(7): 1231-1233.

Dickmann, M. & Baruch, Y. (2011). Global career management. London: Routledge.

Dipietro, B. (2015). Crisis of the Week: Alibaba Answers Counterfeit Claims, [Online]. Retrieved From: Blogs.wsj.com/riskandcompliance/2015/03/16/crisis-of-week-alibabas-counterpunch-to-counterfeit-claims/ (Accessed on 1st May 2015)

Doland, A. (2014). Branding Lessons from China's Alibaba. [Online]. Retrieved from: http://adage.com/article/global-news/alibaba-teach-chinese-brands/295115/. (Accessed on 1st may 2015)

Draffen, C.M (2001). Going Global: Export Market Proves Profitable for Region’s Small Businesses, Newsday.

Ewington, N., Lowe, R., & Trickey, D. (2008). Being International. International Management Development, London: Worldwork Ltd.

Fiol, C. M. (1991). Managing Culture as a Competitive Resource: An Identity-Based View of Sustainable Competitive Advantage, Journal of Management, 17(1): 191-211.

Floor van den Born & Peltokorpi, V. (2010). Language Policies and Communication in Multinational Companies: Alignment with Strategic Orientation and Human Resource Management Practices. Journal of Business Communication, 47(2): 97-118.

Forster, N. (2000). Expatriates and the impact of cross-cultural training, Human Resource Management Journal, 10(3):63-78.

Ghemawat, P. (2001), Distance Still Matters. The Hard Reality of Global Expansion, Harvard business review, 79(8): 137-147.

Grant, R. M. (1991). The Resource-based Theory of Competitive Advantage, California Management Review, 33(3): 114-35.

Harris, H. & Brewster, C. (1999) International human resource management: the European contribution, in Brewster, C., and Harris, H. (eds), International HR. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 1-18.

Hindle, T. 2009. Management Ideas: Globalisation, 20th July edn, [Online]. www.economist.com. (Accessed on 29th April 2015)

Hofstede, G. & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (Rev. 2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Culture and personality revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-Cultural Research, 38: 52-88.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values (Cross Cultural Research and Methodology). New Delhi: Sage Publications

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001a). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions and Organizations across Nations, (2nd ed) Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G. (2001b). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (Rev. 3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W. & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hurley, R.F. & Hult, G.T.M. (1998). Innovation, market orientation, and organizational learning: an integration and empirical examination, Journal of Marketing 62 (3): 42–54.

Jacob, A. & Gough, N. (2014). Alibaba with Its I.P.O., Mints Millionaires and Risk Takers. New York Times. [Online]. Retrieved From: http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/09/18/alibaba-with-its-i.p.o-mints-millionaires-and-risk-takers/. (Accessed on 28th April 2015)

Jagersma, P. K. & Van Gorp, D. M. (2003). Stilling searching for the pot of gold: doing business in today’s China, Journal of Business Strategy, 24(5): 27-35.

Jessica. (2015). E- Commerce Company: Alibaba Group Success Story. Retrieved From:

Ke, W. & Wei, K. (2008). Organizational culture and leadership in ERP implementation, Decision Support Systems. 45(2):208-218..

Kirkpatrick, D. (2007 July 9). How Microsoft conquered China, Fortune. [Online]. Available at http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/07/23/100134488/index.htm?postversion=2007070910. (Accessed on 2nd May 2015)

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. (2009). Marketing Management. New York: Pearson Press.

Lei, L. & Li, D. (2007). Testing the global and regional strategies of multinational enterprises, Research in Global Strategic Management, Regional Aspects of Multinationality and Performance, 13: 263-296.

Leong, T. (2013). Introduction to Alibaba.com. [Online]. Available From: www.aslma.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Timothy-Leung-introduction-to-Alibaba.pdf (Accessed on 23rd April 2015)

Luthans, F. & Doh, J. (2009). International Management. Culture, strategy and behaviour, (7th ed), New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

McGovern, G. (2014). Customer-centric and easy to use is the new business model (The Alibaba story). New Thinking. [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.gerrymcgovern.com/new-thinking/customer-centricand-easy-use-new-business-model-alibaba-story (Accessed on 30th April 2015)

McGregor, J. & Hamm, S. (2008 January 28). Davos Special Report: Managing the global workforce. Business Week, 36-51

Mehanna, R. (2008). Globalization versus Regionalization: And the Winner Is...”, Journal of Transnational Management, 13(4): 287-317.

Mendenhall, M. & Oddou, G. (1985). The dimensions of expatriate acculturation, Academy of Management Review, 10(1):39-47.

Newman, K. L. & Nollen, S. D. (1996). Culture and Congruence: The Fit between Management Practices and National Culture, Journal of International Business Studies, 27(4): 735-779.

Osawa, J. (2014). How Does Alibaba Make Money? The Wall Street Journal. [Online]. Retrieved From: http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2013/09/09/how-does-alibaba-make-money (Accessed on 2nd May 2015)

Paik & Sohn, J. (2004). Striking a Balance between Global Integration and Local Responsiveness: the Case of Toshiba Corporation in Redefining Regional Headquarters' Role, Organizational Analysis, 12(4): 347-359.

Piekkari, R. & Pervez, G. (2005), Implementing control through regional subsidiaries, Working paper edn.

Porter, M.E. (1986), Competition in global industries, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Mass.

Prahalad, C.K. & Doz, Y.L. (1987). The Multinational Mission: Balancing Local Demands and Global Vision, New York: The Free Press.

Qing, H. (2008). A Model for Value added e-Market Provisioning: Case Study from Alibaba. com. In Future Generation Communication and Networking Symposia, 2008. FGCNS'08. Second International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 47-52). IEEE.

Rugman, A.M. & Brugman, P. (2005). Regional strategy and performance in the global automotive industry, Research in Global Strategic Management, 11: 97-117.

Rugman, A.M. & Li, J. (2007). Will China’s Multinationals Succeed Globally or Regionally?, European Management Journal, 25(5): 333-343.

Rugman, A.M. & Oh, C.H. 2007, Multinationality and regional performance, 2001 - 2005, Research in Global Strategic Management, 13: 31-43.

Rugman, A.M. & Verbeke, A. (2008a). A regional solution to the strategy and structure of multinationals, European Management Journal, 26(5): 305-313.

Rugman, A.M. & Verbeke, A. (2008b). The theory and practice of regional strategy: a response to Osegowitsch and Sammartino, Journal of International Business Studies, 39(2): 326-332.

Rugman, A. M. (2003). Regional strategy and the demise of globalization. Journal of International Management, 9(4): 409-417.

Rugman, A.M. (2005). Internalization, International Diversification and the Multinational Enterprise: Essay in Honour of Alan, M. Rugman, Research in Global Strategic Management, 11: 165-202

Sau-ling LAI, L. (2014). Chinese Entrepreneurship in the Internet Age: Lessons from Alibaba.com (1st ed., pp. 1-7). International Science Index: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. [Online]. Retrieved from http://waset.org/publications/15135/chinese-entrepreneurship-in-the-internet-agelessons-from-alibaba.com (Accessed on 30th April 2015)

Schneider, S. & Meyer, A. D. (1991). Interpreting and responding to strategic issues: The impact of national culture, Strategic Management Journal, 12 (4): 307 – 320.

Segil, L., Goldsmith, M., Belasco, J. (2003), Partnering: The New Face of Leadership, New York: AMACOM.

Verbeke, A. & Yuan, W. (2008). Subsidiary Capabilities in an Era of Regionalization, Academy of International Business, Best Paper Proceedings 2008, pp. 1-32.

Walraven, P. (2009). Alibaba.com: The Inspiration behind the Business Model. [Online]. Retrieved From: www.londonschoolofmarketing.com/blog/bid/381438/Alibaba-com-The-inspiration-behind-the-business-model (Accessed on 3rd May 2015)

Wang, G. & Lim, Y. (2011). Research in China’s Alibaba Development. Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Management Science and Electronic Commerce, 2295-2297.

Wei, D. (2007). Interview: CEO, Alibaba.com (Alibaba Group). [Online]. Retrieved From: www.fibre2fashion.com/face2face/alibaba/interview-david-wei-ceo-alibaba.asp (Accessed on 3rd May 2015)

Westney, D. E. (2006). The regional multinationals: MNEs and ‘global’strategic management. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(3): 445-449.

Wolf, J. & Egelhoff, W.G. (2001) "Strategy and Structure: Extending the Theory and Integrating the Research on National and International Firms", Schmalenbach Business Review (SBR), 53(2): 117-139.

You Fei, J. (2012). E-marketing strategic management at Alibaba.com. DeMonfort University. MBA Library.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us