The paper 'International Negotiation Issues " is a great example of business coursework. Generally, the negotiation literature provides lots of different strategies and ways to negotiate a good deal, but broadly, it agrees on three main approaches. These are the Hard approach or the Positional strategy, Soft or the Integrative strategy, and the middle path or the Principled Strategy. The hard approach is positional in nature and very competitive. And the negotiators go for a must-win or win-lose strategy. This is also known as competitive negotiation. And the soft approach to negotiation is interest-based and cooperative negotiation.
The rule here is to go for a win-win situation. This is also known as collaborative negotiation. While the last one – the principled negotiation takes the middle path but is closer to soft rather than a hard approach. This is also called a balanced negotiation. The negotiation experts have put together an eight-stage negotiation process as the general steps which are generally followed in any negotiations. Based on the best practices and best approaches to negotiation this eight stage process is particularly useful in complex, multi-party, and multi-issue negotiations.
Briefly, they are: 1. Preparation: It is the key element of any negotiation. Without understanding and preparing for the core issues, one cannot hope to negotiate. 2. Openness: The successful negotiator must be prepared to listen to all sides and present his/her case appropriately. He should be open to new ideas and approaches. And a rigid closed approach is a strict no-no. 3. Arguing the case: Good negotiations are based on quantifiable and quality arguments. So, one must support any argument with suitable evidence. 4. Explore Possibilities: A good negotiator must remain open and receptive to newer options and try to explore new opportunities whenever required. 5.
Send positive signals: The negotiator should always exhibit responsiveness and agreeable nature so that others perceive him as someone who can be trusted. 6. Package: Negotiators should assemble a package deal which should appeal to all parties. 7. Close the deal: After negotiations, reach a final agreement with different parties. 8. Reliable: And once the deal is sealed, whatever has been agreed should be followed without any deviation. INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION: In international negotiation also, all the process steps as mentioned above and all the basic approaches apply except that on the international scene – more negotiations are balanced and collaborative in nature than competitive.
These negotiations involve more complex issues and are negotiated on a far larger scale with lots of stakeholders both visible and invisible. There are lots of conflicting interests within the same group and it can be very difficult to understand them especially in the context of different cultures. Actually, for international negotiations, the preparation and understanding of the culture of the opposite party is a must as the cultural norms are the critical elements, which usually dictate the negotiating style.
The actual success or failure of negotiations in the international arena depends heavily on the basic understanding of the culture of the other country. This is the reason why international negotiations are considered very complex and involve many different issues as well. Moreover, these are not between any two or five individual persons but involve large delegations of high-level personnel and subject matter experts. These delegations are generally well organized and every person has a specialized role to play such as cultural experts, linguists, and subject specialists as well as a chief negotiator and support negotiator.
Fink and Stewart, 1995, The Mouse exercise, Harvard Law School