Essays on Utilitarian Ethical Model Report

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The paper "Utilitarian Ethical Model" is a wonderful example of a report on management. In the modern world of business and management, people are constantly faced with crucial decisions that they have to make on a regular basis. Some of these decisions are guided by ethics and professional codes of conduct. Decision making can be a tough undertaking, especially where ethical dilemmas are involved. In such cases, either option has its own merits and demerits. The decision-maker has to choose the decisions with fewer detriments or those that they feel are in accordance with their decision making criteria.

Ethical dilemmas are a constant challenge to policy and decision-makers in organizations. Making appropriate ethical decisions can be a determinant of whether leadership and management are regarded as successful (Stead, Worrel and Stead 2000, 234). When making ethical decisions, there are various models that have been developed over time to aid in the process. The choice of model is dependent on some factors such as organizational structure, culture, personal beliefs, and professional codes of conduct among other issues. Some of the most common models used include the utilitarian model, the golden rule model, the justice model, moral rights model among others.

Each of these models has its applicability and different levels of success depending on the context they are applied in and decision support systems put in place to help in the processes. In this essay, an evaluation of the utilitarianism and its applicability in management will be covered in depth. Situations where the model is suitable and the process followed will also be evaluated The moral right and justice models This model advocates for ethical decision making in a manner that upholds and safeguard the fundamental rights of the individuals affected by the decision.

A decision-maker has to consider each decision option and how it will affect individual rights and privileges of stakeholders. It is after a critical analysis that the decision-maker should choose appropriately. In a free world, individual are entitled to rights and privileges that should be upheld and respected by others some of these fundamental rights include privacy, freedom of speech, right to safety, right to live, right to fair due processes among other.

A decision-maker in this model should avoid infringing on these rights in the decision-making process. In the justice model, the detriments and merits of a decision are spread equally in a fair manner which is impartial and equitable. No one stakeholder affected by the decision has an advantage over the other. It is based on the logic that all people are equal and hence, gains and losses of decision making should also be shared equally. It is a socialistic model that advocates for equality, fairness, and impartiality.

The model promotes equality regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, or color. Utilitarian ethical decision-making model As mentioned earlier, the personality of an individual will affect their decision making and ethical systems. The considerations in the ethical systems are affected by their social status as well as their personality and their day to day life experiences. Ethical philosophies take a normative approach as opposed to a descriptive one. They offer guidance on how people should act, given different situations (Louden 2012, 504). The utilitarian theory states that the results of a decision are measured by its goodness or badness.

It puts an emphasis on the end results other than the means used to get there. The utilitarian model follows the teleological or consequential approach to decision makings. The model asserts that the impact of a decision should only be judged according to the consequences that come from it (Bartels and Pizarro 2011, 156). The model operates by maximizing utility for all parties affected by the decisions. The effectiveness of decisions is as good as the positivity they manifest in more people. The greater good is defined in terms of maximized well being of all parties affected by a decision.

In this context, the greater good is quantitatively measurable to a certain degree. The theory is simple as it applies the measurement in the degree of correct or wrong. However, measuring these degrees may be challenging in some situations. Generally, the utilitarian decision making follows what is right and what yields the greatest good (Hammond 2000, 4).

References

Bartels, Daniel M, and David A Pizarro. "The mismeasure of morals: Antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas." Cognition 121, no. 1 (2011): 154-161.

Blackorby, Charles, Walter Bossert, and David Donaldson. "Chapter 11 Utilitarianism and the theory of justice." Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare 1 (2002): 543-596.

Hammond, Peter J. Consequentialist Decision Theory and Utilitarian Ethics. Stanford: Stanford University, 2000.

Louden, B R. "Virtue Ethics." Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition), 2012, Pages, 2012: 503-510.

Sims, Ronald R. Managing Organizational Behavior. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

Smart, C J, and Bernard Williams. Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Stead, Edward W, Dan L Worrel, and Jean Garner Stead. "An integrative Model for Understanding and Managing Ethical Behaviour in Business Organisations." Journal of Business Ethics 9 (2000): 233-242.

WOODARD, CHRISTOPHER. 2013. The common structure of kantianism and act-utilitarianism. Utilitas 25, (2) (06): 246-265, http://0-search.proquest.com.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au/docview/1372052796?accountid=12001 (accessed September 25, 2013).

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