The paper 'Job Specialization' is a great example of a Management Essay. Work specialization refers to the process of focusing job design in a manner to reflect individual working in an area of expertise. Although job specialization reduces employee flexibility in terms of making them unable to handle other activities, the idea is still widely used in job designs of most organizations. Job specialization when a certain work is broken down into smaller units. This means that employees will perform fewer tasks. The act of dividing jobs into smaller units is seen as coming with advantages and disadvantages such as increasing work efficiency and increasing boredom respectively (Williams and Williams, 2010, p.
176). The idea of work efficiency comes into play in the sense that employees have less tasks to complete and will take quite some time before employee switch jobs. Most organized structures have clear dimensions of how jobs are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. However, the problems associated with the job specialization approach are better handled using a well-established job characteristic model that involves feedback, skill variety, and task identity.
This model of characteristics will clearly play an important role in eliminating issues such as job boredom and poor or low job satisfaction that may result from job specialization. Background Advantages of Job Specialization One advantage of specialization is its role in creating more job opportunities. Since work is broken down into smaller units, with individuals handling smaller portions, there will be the need to employ more experts to handle some other areas. Likewise, most scholars argue that job specialization necessitates trade. Since specialization increases productivity, there are high chances that trade will be facilitated and thus increased chances of human wants being satisfied.
In essence, increased job specialization stimulates trade and vice versa (Williams and McWilliams, 2010). Specialization also reduces the cost of production. This is because as employees gain more experience in their respective jobs, they result in work efficiency that in turn results in high productivity in a short period. This will also result in efficient and improved worker output within a limited cost. These benefits of low production cost will definitely pass on to the consumer in the form of low prices and high quality.
In that case, such products are likely to generate high profits since the production cost is maintained at minimum levels. Another important benefit of job specialization is that of expertise development. Most employees gain more experience and expertise in their respective tasks after working on it for a long time. With more expertise gained over time, employees will definitely produce more quality products in a more efficient way with less time (Williams and McWilliams, 2010). It also results in increased output for consumers since employees are now more experienced.
In the case where technology is used in production, employees are likely to gain expertise and use technology in other areas of production. Disadvantages Job specialization always implies the repetition of the same activity and can lead to boredom. This can often be the case. Individuals working in specialized jobs are often bored and may lead to employee burnout. The level of burnout depends on the demands of the production cycle for employees and usually becomes even worse when an organization overworks its employees for longer periods.
In the long run, employee burnout and boredom will result in poor employee morale and low job satisfaction (Williams and Williams, 2010, p176). This can be controlled by the introduction of multi-tasking to offer room for employees to learn new skills and have control over a wide area of experience.
List of References
Hsieh, A and Chao, H 2004, A reassessment of the relationship between job specialization,
Job rotation and job burnout, International Journal of Human Resource Management; vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1108 - 1123.
Mrugank, V & Ashwin, W 2005, Motivating salesperson customer orientation: insights from the
job characteristics mode, Journal of Business Research, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 584 – 592.
Waheed, A & Rehman, M 2011, An Empirical Study of Impact of Job Satisfaction on job
Performance in the Public Sector Organizations, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 167 - 181.
Williams, C & McWilliams, A 2010, MGMT 1st, Asia-Pacific Edn, Cengage Learning
Australia Limited, South Melbourne.