IntroductionToday, technology plays a crucial role in the way people engage in various Knowledge management tasks. Various forms of technology determine the efficiency in which knowledge is managed and utilized in the organizational setting (Odom & Starns 2003, p. 26). There is continuous need for knowledge management activities to be integrated into the modern organization through the use of technology. Although different types of technologies inspire knowledge management practices in different ways, they do not necessary facilitate such practices (Massey, Montoya-Weiss & Holcom 2001, p. 163). The approaches adopted in this undertaking are to largely to blame for this failure.
This annotated bibliography highlights various aspects that researchers have focused on in efforts to show the role of technology in facilitating knowledge management activities. In the first article, Edwards, Shaw, & Collier (2005) focus on ‘how to find a way with technology using knowledge management systems. In the second article, Malhotra (2005) focuses on how information technology is used in knowledge management. The third paper is by Wagner (2004), which focuses on Wiki technology and its use in conversational knowledge management.
The fifth article is by Wagner (2004) who focuses on the e-learning aspects of knowledge management, based on a book review. Title and reference of articleEdwards, J, Shaw, D, & Collier, P, 2005, ‘Knowledge management systems: Finding a way with technology, Journal Of Knowledge Management, Vol. 9 No. 1 pp. 113-125.Type of articleResearch articleAim/purpose of articleThe aim of the research was to assess the role that technology plays in knowledge management within organization in terms of both the actual roles and desired roles. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]The sample of 78 randomly selected works from 10 different organizations.
Data was collected using Facilitated and computer-supported group workshops. They involved 78 people who worked from ten different organizations. The data collected was analyzed by reviewing the current state of knowledge management in the organization in order to develop a future action plan. FindingsOnly three organizations were found to have adopted a strong ‘solution’ that is technology-based, for purposes of handling knowledge management problems. The three organizations followed three routes that were substantially different. Clear emphasis appeared to be on the utilization of general tools of information technology as support platforms for knowledge management activities, rather than the use of tools that are specific to knowledge management.
Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchEvery organization needs to resolve four main tensions: between centralized and the decentralized organization, between quality and quantity of information, between organizational and head office knowledge, and between ‘pull’ and ‘push’ processes. Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focus The research is based on a scanty literature relating to knowledge management and its use in information technology.
The study was conducted against the backdrop of concerns that further research was needed in order for organizations to be provided information on how to make the best use of technology in order to deliver the best knowledge management solutions. Participation in this research was restricted to only those organizations that were wishing to produce an action plan for utilization of knowledge management systems. Strength/s of articleThe article provides a real-life situation of the state of affairs on how technology is utilized for knowledge management purposes in organizations.
Weakness/es of articleThe study does not appreciate the differences existing in organizations and their impact on how technology is used in knowledge management processesTitle and reference of articleMalhotra, Y, 2005, ‘Integrating knowledge management technologies in organizational business processes: getting real time enterprises to deliver real business performance’ Journal Of Knowledge Management, Vol. 9, No. 1 pp. 7-28.Type of articleCase studyAim/purpose of articleThe aim of the study is to offer scholars and executives a pragmatic understanding on how knowledge management strategies and technologies are integrated into business processes for performance to be improved.
sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]The sample of the research was five different business organizations. Data was collected through a review of research, theory and practices on knowledge management in these organizations. This data generated a framework that contrasts the proposed strategy-pull models with contemporary technology-push models. The framework was used in data analysis, to explain how ‘critical gaps’ between business performance outcomes, technology inputs and related knowledge processes can bridged in the two types of models. Real-time enterprise (RTE) model for business was handled in illustrative case studies, in both successful and unsuccessful business entities.
Analysis was made on the basis of a real-world understanding of the proposed framework. FindingsThe feasibility of the superior strategy-pull models is enhanced by ‘plug-and-play’ technologies, making them better than the traditional technology-push models. Strategic execution is of critical importance in guiding the procedure for design of various enterprise knowledge processes, including the selection and implementation of various related technologies. Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchThe analysis given in this research is comprehensive in terms of how knowledge management concepts are integrated into business processes.
Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focus The study assesses only a few number of case studiesStrength/s of articleThe study provides a thorough examination of how technology is integrated into knowledge management systems. Weakness/es of articleThe study procedures adopted does not take into the expected future technological changes. Title and reference of articleKazi, A, 2002, ‘Information Technologies For Knowledge Management: Their Usage And Effectiveness’, ITcon, Vol. 7 pp. 125-137. Type of articleResearch articleAim/purpose of articleThis paper is a presentation of research conducted with an aim of identifying the various technologies which are currently being used in knowledge management within the construction industry.
The effectiveness of these technologies is explored, whereby the strengths and weaknesses of IT (information technology) for KM (knowledge management) are highlighted. Additionally, attempts are made to highlight some of the complexities and challenges associated with knowledge management in project-based environments. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]The sample of the study was 15 construction organizations (5 small, 5 medium-sized, and 5 large construction organizations).
Data collection was done through supplying various construction organizations with a postal questionnaire in order for generalization data to be obtained on the role that IT plays in KM, within the construction industry. In data analysis, supplementary ethnographic interviews together with the questionnaires were analyzed to reveal rich data on the nature of IT for purposes of KM, in five large, medium and small construction organizations. FindingsThe research found out that conventional technologies, for instance telephones, are used much more frequently for knowledge management compared to more radical IT, such as video conferencing and Groupware.
In construction organizations, there are many potential benefits of IT for knowledge management, which are not being fully exploited. Many people have expressed the need for a greater level of IT implementation in this area. This need is appropriated by sufficient education and training of staff. Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchThis research underscores the need for the IT component to be increasingly recognized in knowledge management, mainly as a vital resource in construction organizations. This resource is need for maintenance of competitive advantage.
Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focus It was impossible to focus on the short-term projects, which, by their very nature, make it difficult for the viability of IT use in knowledge management to be determined. Much more research on short-term working environments would have shed light on the way in which IT is used to maximize profitability within the limited time that employees are in short-term projects. Furthermore, the aspect of IT asset management comes into the picture when knowledge management issues are being discussed.
This issue has not been adequately assessed. Strength/s of articleThe article appreciates the absence of a universal and thoroughly comprehensive conceptualization of the term knowledge management in the IT field. The relationship between IT and various manifestations of knowledge management is clearly highlighted, particularly in construction organizations. Weakness/es of articleThe research creates the impression that the knowledge component is the only thing that construction organizations need in order to achieve the most out of their existing IT infrastructure. In sharp contrast, though, no clear connection is made between the brainpower of the workforce and the new dimension that is often realized with the introduction of new information technology tools.
Title and reference of articleWagner, C, 2004, ‘Wiki: A Technology For Conversational Knowledge Management And Group Collaboration’ Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 13, pp. 265-289.Type of articleResearch article. Aim/purpose of articleThis research paper in traduces the Wiki technology, its organizational and behavioral implications on the people who use it, and its applicability as a help system and groupware system. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]The sample was three wiki publications.
Data was collected through a description of different IT-based concepts relating to the world of Wiki publications. Data analysis was done by determining the nature of interaction between knowledge management activities on Wiki publications and technological platforms which had been established in the course of this description. On this basis, their relevance in knowledge management in today’s digital age is established. FindingsThe articles generates the conclusion that organizations that have the willingness to embrace the ‘Wiki Way’ using collaborative and conversational knowledge management systems are highly likely to enjoy better results.
They are likely to achieve much more than just linear knowledge growth, while at the same time maintaining the ability to satisfy and distribute and knowledge needs ad hoc. Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchThe study highlights the benefits of web-based sources of knowledge, particularly those that are web-based. Conversational knowledge creation issues are properly highlighted together with the technologies that support them. Emphasis is on the role of Wiki online sites and the role that they play in supplying the organization with knowledge.
The organizational environment in which the information is used is highlighted and the implications clearly stipulated. Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focus The article contains too many technological concepts relating to issues such as editing web pages, creation of hyperlinks, relationships between various hyperlinks and other online utilities, and the software technology that goes with use of wiki sites. Little attention is accorded to the relevance of these concepts in terms of organizational knowledge management. Strength/s of articleThe article contains insightful information on how online technology can be used to harness the knowledge management potential of the modern organization.
Weakness/es of articleThe article does not give the theoretical basis of the descriptions of wiki-based technology in relation to today’s information management systems. Moreover, the article merely contains descriptions of the technological aspects of Wiki articles. Further research is needed in order for a large body of information on use of wiki articles to be accumulated. Moreover, the article does not contribute a lot in terms of methodological aspects of knowledge management in the organizational context.
Title and reference of articleSanderson, P, 2002, ‘E-Learning: strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age’ Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 5, pp. 185–188. Type of articleBook ReviewAim/Purpose of articleThe paper gives a review of a book entitled: E-Learning Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age. The book is reviewed in terms of the perspectives used, the global themes addressed, as well as the new approaches that are currently being used in e-learning and knowledge management. Emphasis is on various knowledge management-related activities of the digital environment such as creation, storing, sharing, and archiving.
The organizational requirements of e-learning are surveyed and the viewpoints highlighted in the book are critically analyzed. Focus is on knowledge management systems and the role that is played by technology. The critical knowledge success factors in e-learning and outlined and discussed. The contributions of various researchers and scholars are incorporated in the review. Sample, location, method of data collection and analysisThe paper sample was a book entitled E-Learning: strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age. Data collection was in the form of a detailed, systematic review.
The review drew on the literature presented in the book and related it with the main notions that are highlighted in the knowledge management-related topics. Data analysis was done a chapter-by-chapter basis, whereby core knowledge management concepts were analyzed in relation to the ongoing debate, particularly the technological aspects of KM. FindingsThe book appears to be an excellent resource for any organization that is implementing the need for one of the aspects of knowledge management in the digital era, which is known as e-learning. The book also offers new insights for those organizations that have established e-learning strategies.
These new insights are necessary for enabling these organizations ensure that they put the right structures in place to deal with the rapid speed with which technology is changing all the time. The strategies and tools that presented in the book offer sound, practical business methodologies for the accomplishment of broad integration of knowledge management structures, particularly e-learning. The information offered provides a good basis for the creation of learning organizations, in response to the highly dynamic technology-inspired knowledge structures.
The discussion that is made on the measurement and justification model for today’s e-learning and knowledge systems is enlightening and unique. This model is based on various business metrics of service, cost, speed and reliability. Critical success factors are discussed early on in the book, and emphasis is on determining their viability before venturing in any of the systems. The various aspects of knowledge management that are of great utility to knowledge management scholars include business technology leadership champions, culture, communication and change. All these factors are critical for the formulation of new enterprise-wide initiatives.
Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic or prior researchThe article opens up the debate in one of the numerous areas of technology and knowledge management: e-learning. The discussion sets the standard for the reviews on books that dwell on other areas of technology, such as e-commerce, e-insurance, and e-travel. The paper also sheds light on the methodological perspectives that reviewers of knowledge management literature focus on in efforts to drive research trends towards the solving of subtle problems in the subdisciplineLimitations of article, e.g.
location, industry, focusApart from the part on the creation of e-learning strategies, no other section of this book is applicable in the creation of major development plans. The only recommendations offered by Rosenberg, which are highlighted in the review, are those that relate to strategy development, analysis of various business environments, and assessments of various goals with regard to the goals of business. In other words, no special emphasis is put on the role of knowledge management in technology-based business. Such concepts are implied rather than expressly stated.
Strengths of the articleThe review article highlights the various organizational requirements associated with e-learning. The importance of access to the internet is emphasized. A crucial strength is in the form of acknowledgement of the internet’s relevance in understanding knowledge management from a technological perspective Weaknesses of the article The review is guided by the arrangements of chapters in the book and not the pertinent knowledge management concepts explored. ConclusionIn summary, every organization has many benefits to reap from adopting modern technology in carrying out knowledge management practices.
Information technology appears to be the latest craze among organizational players who are excited about the prospect of monumental benefits arising from integration of IT systems into the organizational learning activities (Schultze & Leidner 2002, p. 220). The articles reviewed reveal that the debate on knowledge management is shaping up from various perspectives within the area of technology. Information technology appears to be the most studied aspect today. However, information technology is not as an effective driver of knowledge management activities as people had traditionally tended to believe. However, it is a great source of inspiration for role-players in various learning organizations.
The bibliography also reveals the need for other areas of technology to be explored and a coherent knowledge management theory derived. ReferencesEdwards, J, Shaw, D, & Collier, P, 2005, ‘Knowledge management systems: Finding a way with technology, Journal Of Knowledge Management, Vol. 9 No. 1 pp. 113-125.Kazi, A, 2002, ‘Information Technologies For Knowledge Management: Their Usage And Effectiveness’, ITcon, Vol. 7 pp. 125-137.Malhotra, Y, 2005, ‘Integrating knowledge management technologies in organizational business processes: getting real time enterprises to deliver real business performance’ Journal Of Knowledge Management, Vol.
9, No. 1 pp. 7-28.Massey, A, Montoya-Weiss, M, & Holcom, K, 2001, ‘Re-engineering the customer relationship: leveraging knowledge assets at IBM’ Decision Support Systems, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 155-70.Odom, C, & Starns, J, 2003, ‘KM technologies assessment’, KM World, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 18-28.Sanderson, P, 2002, ‘E-Learning: strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age’ Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 5, pp. 185–188.Schultze, U, & Leidner, D, 2002, ‘Studying knowledge management in information systems research: discourses and theoretical assumptions’, MIS Quarterly, Vol.
26, No. 3, pp. 213-42.Wagner, C, 2004, ‘Wiki: A Technology For Conversational Knowledge Management And Group Collaboration’ Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 13, pp. 265-289.