Essays on Transformational and Ethical Leadership Literature review

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The paper “ Transformational and Ethical Leadership” is a sage example of the literature review on management. For more than two decades, globalization has created a volatile and turbulent economic environment. As a result, organizations that were once considered permanent, static, and traditional have given way to innovative, flexible, and adaptive organizations that are more suited for transformation in a new world of change (Doody, & Doody, 2012). However, organizations need to transform and revitalize in order to meet the challenges ahead of them. Most importantly, the quality of leadership is essential as it will present a valuable source of competitive advantage and organizational improvement (Parry & Sinha 2005). Transformational leadershipAccording to Sandhu and Kaur (2012), transformational leadership has been the most prominent style of leadership attributed to organizational improvement and competitive advantage.

This is based on its qualitative different approach in regard to motivating followers. Through transformation leadership, the followers have been motivated to achieve organizational performance beyond expectations not by simply gaining compliance, but by transforming the beliefs, values, and attitudes of followers. In addition, transformational leadership is based on four characteristics; inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and individualized consideration.

Transformational leadership develops thinking of followers about situations, supports individuals, and provides motivation, inspiration, and respect. These leaders are also comfortable with challenging the status quo, taking risks, and demonstrating high internal locus control (Heifetz, 2006). Armstrong and Muenjohn (2008) add that transformational leadership incorporates the action of the leaders and that of followers in regard to satisfaction of both their needs and the support of the development of continuous path that leads to highest standards on basic moral responsibility. This includes the motivation of followers in order to ensure that they go beyond their own self-interests for the benefit of the organization, team, and community.


Armstrong, A, & Muenjohn, N 2008, “An ethical dimension in transformational leadership”, Journal of Business systems Governance and Ethics, vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 21-36

Avolio, BJ, & Gardner WL 2005, “Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership”, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 16, pp. 315–338

Bass, BM & Steidlmeier, P 1999, “Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behaviour”, Leadership Quarterly, vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 181-217.

Brown, ME, & Trevino, LK 2006, Ethical leadership: A review and future directions, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 17, pp. 595–616

Darcy, KT 2010, “Ethical Leadership: The past, present and future”, International Journal of Disclosure & Governance, vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 198-212.

Davis, A L, & Rothstein, HR 2006, “The effects of the perceived behavioral integrity of managers on employee attitudes: A meta-analysis”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 67, pp. 407-419.

Doody, O, & Doody CM 2012, “Transformational leadership in nursing practice”, British Journal of Nursing, vol. 21, No. 20, pp. 1212-1218.

Heifetz, RA 2006, Anchoring leadership in the work of adaptive progress, In F. Hesselbein & M. Goldsmith (Eds), The leader of the future: Visions, strategies, and the new era, pp. 78-80. San Francisco, CA: Leader to Leader Institute, Josey Bass

Moorman, RH, & Grover, S 2009, “Why Does Leader Integrity Matter to Followers? An Uncertainty Management-Based Explanation, International Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 102-114

Parry, K & Sinha, PN 2005, “Researching the trainability of transformational organisational leadership”, Human Resource Development International, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 165-183

Plinio, A J 2009, “Ethics and leadership”, International Journal of Disclosure & Governance, pp. 277-283, <>

Rangapriya KN, & Barbara SL 2012, “Behavioral Integrity: How Leader Referents and Trust Matter to Workplace Outcomes”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 111, No. 2, pp 165-178

Sandhu, HS, & Kaur, K 2012, “Augmenting Subordinates’ Commitment: The Role of Transformational Leadership”, International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, Vol. 15, No.1, pp. 15-35

Schermerhorn, J, Davidson, P, Poole, D, Simon, A, Woods, P, & Chau, S 2011, Management, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.

Souba, WW 2011, “The being of leadership”, Philosophy, Ethics & Humanities in Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 5-15

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