Essays on Leading Organisational Change - General Motors Case Study

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Leading Organisational Change - General Motors" is a great example of a management case study.   The main objective of this research is to examine the essence of leading change within an organisation with reference to the case of General Motors. General Motors was once a major entity in the global automotive industry. The organisation continues to make vital changes in its structures, culture, and operations to regain its global position. The research work focuses on the evaluation of key change management models: the McKinsey 7-S Model, Lewin’ s change management model, and Kotter’ s 8-Step change management model.

The research also recommends the application of the Lewin’ s change management model in the case of General Motors with the aim of overcoming diverse challenges while achieving critical goals and objectives. Introduction Organizational change theories and models are necessary for the evaluation and assessment of change at the macro level, which enables institutional leaders to have an appropriate view of the organisation. The models are vital in revealing why change occurs, driving forces of change, how the change will occur, what will occur, and mechanisms of measuring the impact of change within the organization.

Furthermore, each of the change models and theories has different ideologies and assumptions making it essential for the implementation in diverse organisations. An organisation must decide on the ideological process rather than arbitrary approach towards adopting and implementing a change management model or theory. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the concept of change management within an organisation with reference to the case of General Motors. The research will focus on the evaluation of the existing change models and theories towards the achievement of quality change management within the case of General Motors (GM). Literature Review Organisation change is one of the essential aspects of the achievement of competitive advantage in relevant industries.

Various research studies have focused on the examination of diverse elements of organisational change: theories, success change management, the role of sponsor and change agent. There are many diverse theories of organizational change within the context of multidisciplinary literature. Lewin’ s three-step model One of the most studied change management models is the case of Lewin’ s change model. A psychologist Kurt Lewin created the model in the 1950s.

According to his observations, most people tend to focus on operating within the zones of safety under the influence of three critical stages of change (Levasseur 2001, p. 72; Rosch 2002 p. 10; Lewis 2012, p. 6). The first stage of change is unfreezing. During this stage, most individuals have the ability to make an active effort towards resisting change. Organisational leadership need to overcome this tendency through the integration of a period of unfreezing under the influence of motivation. The second stage relates to transition.

In the course of this phase, organizations tend to initiate change thus the movement of the organisation into transition period with the ability to last for some time (Ford 2009, p. 310; Mueller 2009, p. 370; Coghlan et al, 2003, p. 35). In order for the phase to be successful, an organization must integrate quality leadership and reassurance techniques. Finally, the model focuses on the integration of the third phase, which is refreezing. The company concentrates on becoming stable following a successful implementation of the change thus enabling employees to work in accordance with the new guidelines.

This theory comes out as the most applicable, in spite of its requirement for a massive time during implementation (Elrod et al, 2002, p. 280).


List of References

"Tips for Making Successful Change Happen", 2006, HR Focus, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 7-11.

Appelbaum, S.H., Habashy, S., Malo, J. & Shafiq, H. 2012, "Back to the future: revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model", The Journal of Management Development, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 764-782.

Bosco, C. & Plante, C. 2013, "Bankruptcy of General Motors", GSTF Business Review (GBR), vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 180-191.

Briody, E., Tracy, M.P. & Trotter, R. 2012, "A story's impact on organizational-culture change", Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 67-87.

Burt, T. 2002, General Motors leaves its old self standing: MANAGEMENT: The US car group's reputation as slow-moving and inwardly focused is being overturned by 'Go-Fast', a global initiative aimed at making it faster and more responsive, says Tim Burt:, London (UK).

Cinyabuguma, M.M. 2005, Theories and empirics of economic growth, Brown University.

Coghlan, D. & Brannick, T. 2003, "Kurt Lewin: The "Practical Theorist" for the 21st Century", Irish Journal of Management, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 31-37.

Counsell, R., Tennant, C. & Neailey, K. 2005, "The development of a model to support synchronous change", Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 13-20.

DelaCerda, J. 2007, The leading companies of Mexico, 1976--2006: Organizational survival, strategic adaptation and superior performance in the global economic revolt, Benedictine University.

Dunaway, W.M. 2010, Four degrees of proximity: Key factors that influence private sector preparedness and continuity planning, The George Washington University.

Edwards, W.R. 2002, Openness to change: Correlates and organizational consequences, The University of Tulsa.

Elrod, P.D. & Tippett, D.D. 2002, "The "death valley" of change", Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 273-291.

Eriksen, M. 2008, "Leading adaptive organizational change: self-reflexivity and self-transformation", Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 622-640.

Erwin, D. 2009, "Changing Organizational Performance: Examining the Change Process", Hospital topics, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 28-40.

Ford, M.W. 2009, "Size, structure, and change implementation", Management Research News, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 303-320.

Gilpin, E.A., White, M.M., Messer, K. & Pierce, J.P. 2007, "Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Promotions Among Young Adolescents as a Predictor of Established Smoking in Young Adulthood", American Journal of Public Health, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 1489-95.

Gotts, N.M., Polhill, J.G. & A.N.R. Law 2003, "Agent-Based Simulation in the Study of Social Dilemmas", The Artificial Intelligence Review, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3-92.

Goussak, G.W., Webber, J.K. & Ser, E.M. 2012, "A Critical Needs Plan For General Motors: A Cultural Pluralism Approach", Review of Business & Finance Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 45-53.

Hashim Muhammad, 2014. “Organisational change: Case study of GM (General Motors.” Journal of Business Administration and Management Sciences Research, Vol. 3 (1), pp. 001-005.

Hendriks, C.M. 2009, "Policy design without democracy? Making democratic sense of transition management", Policy Sciences, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 341-368.

Hot Topic: Is General Motors Unraveling? 2006, , Eastern edition edn, New York, N.Y.

Kaplan, R.S. 2005, "How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model", Strategy & Leadership, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 41-46.

Kezar, A., Eckel, P., Contreras-mcgavin, M. & Quaye, S.J. 2008, "Creating a web of support: an important leadership strategy for advancing campus diversity", Higher Education, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 69-92.

Knight, J. B. (2002). A content analysis of leadership and management themes in selected business journal articles for a ten-year period. (Order No. 3068434, Our Lady of the Lake University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 267-267

Kohnen, J.B. 2004, "Creating the Project Office: A Manager's Guide to Leading Organizational Change", The Quality Management Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 76-77.

Korthuis-Smith, W. 2002, Organizational trust: The influence of contextual variables, Seattle University.

Kriauciunas, A.P. 2004, Overcoming constraints to organizational change: An empirical study of firms in transitional economies, University of Michigan.

Levasseur, R.E. 2001, "People skills: Change Management tools - Lewin's change model", Interfaces, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 71-73.

Lewis, A. 2012, "Finding a model for managing change", Training & Development, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 6-7.

Maniam, B., Bexley, J.B. & McFarlane, J.B. 2010, "Where Should General Motors Go From Here?", Review of Business & Finance Case Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 27-32.

Marangos, J. 2004, "A Post-Keynesian Approach To The Transition Process", Eastern Economic Journal, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 441-465.

Marshak, R.J. 2004, "Morphing: The Leading Edge of Organizational Change in the Twenty-first Century", Organization Development Journal, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 8-21.

McGuire,Cortis U.(Mac), I.,II. (2006). A baldrige study of the benefits, considerations, and disadvantages of implementing the baldrige criteria for performance excellence. (Order No. 3204906, Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 270-270.

Moran, J.W. & Brightman, B.K. 2000, "Leading organizational change", Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 66-74.

Mueller, J.R. 2009, "Maxims of Maximizing Organizational Change Effectiveness", The Business Review, Cambridge, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 70-75.

Njie, S. 2003, Organizational relationships: Perceptions of the value added by a procurement department in organizations and the implications for organizational development, University of San Francisco.

O'Brien, M.,J. 2008, "5 approaches to leading successful organizational change", Healthcare Financial Management, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 138-138, 140.

Olfert, M.R., Jelinski, M., Zikos, D. & Campbell, J. 2012, "Human capital drift up the urban hierarchy: veterinarians in Western Canada", The Annals of Regional Science, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 551-570.

Peters, T. 2011, "McKinsey 7-S Model", Leadership Excellence, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 7.

Peus, C., Frey, D., Gerkhardt, M., Fischer, P. & Traut-Mattausch, E. 2009, Leading and Managing Organizational Change Initiatives**, Rainer Hampp Verlag, Mering.

Pineno, C.J. & Tyree, M.L. 2009, "The Changing Public Reports by Management and The Auditors Of Publicly Held Corporations: An Updated Comparative Study Of General Motors Corporation And Ford Motor Company", Competition Forum, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 465-472.

Piskurich, G.M. 2009, "Leading Organizational Change", Personnel Psychology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 206-208.

Prince, C. & Beaver, G. 2001, "Facilitating organizational change: the role and development of the corporate university", Strategic Change, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 189.

Quiros, I. 2009, "Organizational alignment: A model to explain the relationships between organizational relevant variables", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 285-305.

Rampersad, H.K. 2004, "Learning and Unlearning in Accordance with Organizational Change", Organization Development Journal, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 43-60.

Reed-Lewis, J. 2006, Minding your middle: Linking middle management to organizational change, Royal Roads University (Canada).

Rosch, E. 2002, "Lewin's field theory as situated action in organizational change", Organization Development Journal, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 8-14.

Rucker, D. (2003). Leading the transition from training to performance: Improving human performance through the implementation of training and nontraining interventions. (Order No. 3118896, Walden University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 135-135.

Schraeder, M., Tears, R.S. & Jordan, M.H. 2005, "Organizational culture in public sector organizations: Promoting change through training and leading by example", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 492-502.

Schulte, A. 2010, "Leading Bold Change", Leadership Excellence, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 4.

Shortell, S.M., Gillies, R.R., Anderson, D.A., Karen, M.E. & Mitchell, J.B. 2000, "Integrating health care delivery", Health Forum journal, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 35-39.

Shotter, J. 2009, Instead of Managerialism: From What Goes on Inside Our Heads to What Our Heads (and Bodies) Go on Inside of - the World between Us, Rainer Hampp Verlag, Mering.

Sidorko, P.E. 2008, "Transforming library and higher education support services: can change models help?", Library Management, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 307-318.

Singh, A. 2013, "A Study of Role of McKinsey's 7S Framework in Achieving Organizational Excellence", Organization Development Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 39-50.

Smith, I. 2011, "Organisational quality and organisational change", Library Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 111-128.

Smudde, P.M. 2000, The rhetorical and organizational nature of public relations: The case of General Motors' C/K pickups, Wayne State University.

Song, H. 2003, Learning effective organizational strategies across cultures: Leading change in Korean organizations, Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University.

Vacarro, G.J. 2007, Leading change by engaging stakeholders in organizational narratives of higher purpose: How Interface, Inc. became one of the world's most profitable and ecologically sustainable businesses, Benedictine University.

Varney, G.H. & McFillen, J. 2000, "Leading organizational change--a multi-method approach to teaching OD&C", Organization Development Journal, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 105-112.

Voß, J., Smith, A. & Grin, J. 2009, "Designing long-term policy: rethinking transition management", Policy Sciences, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 275-302.

Zhao, F. & Choma, P. 2012, "A Business Excellence and Sustainability Model And Its Operationalization", Global Science and Technology Forum, Singapore, pp. 5.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us