Week 6Constraints to leisure Leisure has been described to us as an activity that is intrinsically motivating, enjoyable and freely chosen. Despite leisure being an activity that is freely chosen, there are external constraints that affect the enjoyment of leisure. In this paper I will argue the impact of family as a major constraint on leisure activity and explore any drive in the family, contrarily, that can lead to development of leisure activities. Research dwelling on the impact of leisure participation constraints has intensified immensely in the past twenty years. The driving force under these studies is a belief that participation or visitation would increase through removing or alleviating these perceived constraints.
The assumption that prevailed in the early constraint studies that perceived constraints resulted into insurmountable obstacles to participation. It was assumed that people who took part in an activity were unconstrained in respect to that activity (Crawford, Jackson & Godbey, 1991). This simplistic view of constraints was forgotten in the 1990s and 1980s. In its place came conceptualization of constraints that was insightful that employed sophisticated and diverse methods.
Hierarchical model suggest that leisure constraints can be found at three levels which include: interpersonal, intrapersonal, and structural. These constraints have to be overcome in order for participation in leisure activities to take place. Crawford and Godbey (1987) explain that the distinctiveness of the three categories of constraints still continues to elicit strong debates among researchers. One study challenged the identification of intrapersonal constraints in the individual since many of the constraints were influenced by society or had a definite source. In another perspective, it has been suggested that women prioritized care-related activities as opposed to leisure.
This developed into absence of time for leisure activities which is categorized as a structural constraint. Researchers have also argued that there is an intertwining relationship among the three dimensions which breaks to doubt the hierarchical proposition that is associated with the model (Orrange, 2007). Intrapersonal constraints entailed individual attributes and states which come into interaction with leisure preferences as opposed to intervening between participation and preferences. Such constraints examples include religiosity, stress, and depression; perceive skills, anxiety, and prior socialization and familiarity into particular leisure activities.
Interpersonal constraints resulted from relationship between individuals’ characteristics. One of these constraints is the inability of a person to find a partner who is suitable to engage in a specific activity. Structural constraints refer to intervening factors that exist between participation and preference. The hierarchical model crafted suggests that leisure participants go through a sequential process of having to overcome intrapersonal constraints, then interpersonal constraints and then structural constraints (Jackson & Henderson, 1995). Having looked at these constraints I may say that family will fall under interpersonal constraint.
A person my desire to go and sand bath on the beach but his spouse has a low self esteem and does not want to be seen strutting in a bikini. I may want to go swimming but my partner is not comfortable having me interact with members of the opposite sex at the slightest opportunity. Consequently I deduce that the intrapersonal constraints of your spouse like stress, anxiety, and depression may affect your choice of leisure activities. You will want as much as possible to avoid any of altercations with your spouse.
Her fear and anxiety may make her prohibit you from taking the children to the beach for fear of drowning.