Essays on Critical Care Nursing Professional Leadership and Health Care Program Evaluation Assignment

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper “ Critical Care Nursing Professional Leadership and Health Care Program Evaluation” is a fascinating example of the assignment on health sciences & medicine. Critical care nursing is a new specialty, which emerged in the 1950s and 60s in North America, Europe, South Africa, and Australia and has been developing as a specialty within nursing for more than 30 years. As defined by the World Federation of Critical Care Nurses, critical care nursing is advanced nursing care of critically sick patients who have an evident disorder of crucial organ functions. It involves helping, supporting, and reinstating the patient toward wellbeing, or to relieve the patients’ pain and to prepare them for a noble death.

The intent of critical care nursing is to develop a therapeutic association with patients and their families and to build the patients’ physical, emotional, sociological, educational, and religious potentials through preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative strategies. Critically sick patients are those who are at high danger of actual or possible acute health problems. Critical care nursing can be strongly linked to the intensive care unit (Scribante, Schmollgruber, & Nel, 2005). The early stages of critical care nursing included mainly of coronary care unit, cardiothoracic units, and the general intensive care units.

Coronary care units took care of cardiology patients, cardiothoracic units for postoperative patients whereas; general care unit took care of patients with respiratory problems. The principles of critical care nursing that exist today are a result of later advances in renal, metabolic, and neurological management. Advancement in technology, such as the invention of machines like ventilators, cardiac monitors, pacemakers, defibrillators, dialyzers, and currently, intra-aortic balloon pumps have promoted the development of critical care as a specialty and of more expertise (Fairley, 2005).

The recognition of the importance of the role of adequately trained and experienced nurses in these care units from an early stage has led to the development of the nursing specialty of critical care (Keeling & Bigbee, 2005).


Aitken LM, Currey J, Marshall A, Elliot D. (2006). The range of critical care nursing education in Australian Universities. Australia Critical Care, 19(2): 46-52.

American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (2008). General information regarding certification. Available at:

American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (2006). Standards of Practice and professional performance for the acute and critical care medical nurse specialist. Available at:

Australian College of critical Care Nurses. (2005). Australian College of critical care Nurses Website. Melbourne: Australian College of Critical Care Nurses. Available at:

Considine J. (2005). The responsibility of nurses in avoiding bad events related to respiratory dysfunction: literature evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49: 624-32.

Cowan DT, Norman I, Coopamah VP. (2005). Competence in nursing practice: a contentious notion: a focused evaluation of literature. Nurse Education Today, 25:355-62.

Davidson PM, Elliot D, Daly J. (2006). Clinical leadership in contemporary clinical practice: implication for nursing in Australia. Journal of Nursing Management; 14: 180-7.

Fairley D. (2005). Determine the kind of highly developed nursing practice in critical care: a critical care nurse consultant’s experience. Intensive Critical Care Nursing, 21: 140-8.

Hanley E and Higgins A. (2005). Evaluation of practice in critical care; students’ opinion of a clinical competence evaluation tool. Intensive critical Care Nursing, 21:276-83.

Hravnak M, Tuies P, Baldisseri M. (2005). Expanding acute care nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist education: invasive procedure training and human simulation in critical care. AACN Clinical Iss, 16:89-104).

Hanley E, McEwen A. (2005). Evaluation of clinical practice in critical care: an evaluation of the literature. Intensive Critical Care Nursing; 21: 268-75.

Keeling AW and Bigbee JL (2005). The record of highly developed practice nursing in the United States, In: Hamric AB, Spross JA, Hanson CM, (eds.), highly developed Practice Nursing: A cooperative Approach (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders.

Lloyd-Jones M. (2005). Role advancement and efficient practice in specialist and highly developed practice roles in critical hospital situations: logical review and meta-synthesis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49: 191-209.

Scribante J, Schmollgruber S, Nel E. (2005). Perspective on critical care nursing: South Africa. Connect: World Critical Care Nursing, 3(4):111-15.

WFCCN (2005). WFCCN Position Statement on the Provision of Critical Care Nursing Education--Declaration of Madrid, 2005. Available at

Crawford MA, Woodby LL, Russell TV and Windsor RA. (2005). Using influential evaluation to enhance a smoking cessation strategy for pregnant women. Health communication, 17(3): 265-281.

Drummond MF, Sculpher MJ, Torrance GW, O'Brien BJ, Stoddart GL. (2008). Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. United States, Oxford University Press.

Encyclopedia of Public Health. (2008). Evaluation of Public Health Programs. New York, Springer.

Frechtling JA. (2007). Logic modeling methods in program evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gray, J. A. M. (2007). Evidence-based Healthcare: How to Make Health Policy and Management Decisions. New York: Churchill Livingstone

Issel ML. (2008). Health program planning and evaluation: a practical and systematic approach for community health. United States, Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Lewis D. (2006). Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programs. School of Economics and Information Systems University of Wollongong.

Melnyk BM and Fineout-Overholt E. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to the best practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincoot, Williams and Wilkins.

O'Connor-Fleming ML, Parker EA, Higgins HC and Gould T. (2006). A framework for evaluating health promotion programs. Health Promotion Journal Australia, 17(1): 61-6.

Royse D, Thyer BA, Padgett DK. (2009). Program Evaluation: An Introduction. New York, Cengage Learning

Saunders RP, Evans MH, Joshi P. (2005). Preparing a process-evaluation plan for evaluating health promotion program execution: a how-to manual. Health Promotion Practice Journal, 6(2): 134-47.

Savaya R. and Waysman M. (2005). The rational model: A tool for integrating theory in improvement and evaluation of programs. Administration in Social Work, 29(2): 55-103.

Smith MJ. (2010). Handbook of Program Evaluation for Social Work and Health Professionals. United States; Oxford University Press.

Unrau YA, Gabor PA, Grinnell RM. (2006). Evaluation in health work: the skill and knowledge of practice. United States; Oxford University Press.

World Health Organization (2007). Health Programme Evaluation: Guiding Principles. Geneva: Author.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us