The paper "Employee Turnover in Australia" is a great example of a report on management. Turnover being persistently experienced an organizational problem, all organizations inclusive of the retail industry face this problem irrespective of their industrial and/ or organizational stature. The decline in both productivity and morale in public and private sectors respectively attributed to high rates of employee turnover (Hart, et al, 2006). Different types of turnover exist; some turnovers are voluntary while others are involuntary. Turnover can further be classified as functional, which involves the dismissal of underperforming employees or dysfunctional, which involve the loss of a high performing employee.
Turnover can be either avoidable or unavoidable; unavoidable turnover may result for example from a move by a family (Watrous, et al, 2006). Many studies concerning employee turnover have been conducted in the past five decades. All these researches are focused on identifying the antecedents of turnover in relation to employees (Peterson, 2006). It is tentatively clear among some researches that dissatisfaction is the focal point of employee turnover (Min, 2007). Some researchers argued that even though in most cases employee turnover is detrimental to an organization, employee turnover is sometimes healthy to a firm.
In spite of the advantages, employee turnover often is very disruptive and expensive (Costello, 2006). The costs arising from the need to recruit, select, train, and develop new employees in addition to termination and advertising costs respectively, negatively affect the industrial sector. Researchers have identified that the food retail industry is the most affected sector in terms of turnover, which has recorded as high as a hundred percent rates of turnover. The most common turnover element in the food retail industry is resignation from respective jobs due to poor management, low compensation, and the need to improve their own lives. The aim of this paper is to discuss employee turnover in the Australian retail industry.
In addition, the paper also entails the reasons that are attributed to employee turnover and the importance and/ or impacts of turnover with a special focus on the retail industry (Steensma, Breukelen & Sturm, 2004). Moreover, we discuss the employee turnover models and the corresponding situation in other countries with China as an example, in the retail industry with reference to Employee turnover.
1. ABS. 2010. Home. Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/ProductDocumentCollection?OpenAgent&productno=6209.0&issue=Feb%202010
2. Adelina, B. 2002. Rationalising retail employment: a view from the outside looking in. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30(11): 536 - 543
3. Arnold, H., Feldman, D. & Purbhoo, M. 1985. The role of social-desirability response bias in turnover research. Academy of Management Journal, 28(4): 955-966.
4. Costello, D. 2006. Leveraging the Employee Life Cycle. CRM Magazine, 10(12): 48-48.
5. Hackman, J. & Greg, R. 1976. Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 16 (2): 250–279. doi:10.1016/0030-5073(76)90016-7.
6. Hart, C., Stachow, G., Farrell, A & Reed, G. 2006. Employer perceptions of skills gaps in retail: issues and implications for UK retailers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(4), pp. 271-288.
7. James, H. 2004. A review of a multiple retailer's labour turnover. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 32(9): 434 – 441
8. Kacmar, K., Andrews, M., Rooy, D., Steilberg, R. & Cerrone, S. 2006. Sure, everyone can be replaced but at what cost? Turnover is a unit-level performance predictor. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), pp. 133-144
9. Lambert, E. 2006. I want to leave: A test of a model of turnover intent among correctional staff. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 2(1), pp. 57-83
10. Maertz, C. & Campion, M. 2004. Profiles in quitting: Integrating process and content turnover theory. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4), pp. 566-582.
11. Min, H. 2007. Examining sources of warehouse employee turnover. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 37(5), pp 375-388.
12. Minor, K., Dawson-Edwards, C., Wells, J., Griffith, C. & Angel, E. 2003. Understanding staff perceptions of turnover in corrections. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice, 4(2), pp. 43-57
13. Mobley, W. 1982. Some unanswered questions in turnover and withdrawal research. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), pp. 111-116.
14. Moorman, R. 1991. Relationship between organisational justice and behaviour: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(5): 845-855
15. Peterson, S. 2006. Managerial turnover in US retail organizations. Journal of Management Development, 26(8), pp. 770-789.
16. Ruby, A. 2002. Internal Teacher Turnover in Urban Middle School Reform. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Ris,k 7 (4): 379–406. doi:10.1207/S15327671ESPR0704_2.
17. Schlesinger, L. & James L. 1991. Breaking the Cycle of Failure in Services. MIT Sloan Management Review, 33 (3): 17–28.
18. Sheidow, A., Schoenwald, S., Wagner, H., Allred, C. & Burns, B. 2007. Predictors of workforce turnover in a transported treatment program. Dm Policy Ment Health & Ment Health Serv Res, 34, pp. 45-56.
19. Simon, B. & Kristian, H. 2007. Labour turnover in the retail industry: Predicting the role of individual, organisational and environmental factors. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(4): 289 – 307
20. Skabelund, J. 2008. I just work here. American Fitness, 26(3), 42-42.
21. Steensma, H., Breukelen, W. & Sturm, M. 2004. Studying employee turnover by splitting up he usual comparison group. J Individual Employment Rights, 11(3), pp. 211-227.
22. Testa, B. 2008. Early Engagement, Long Relationship?. Workforce Management, 87(15), 27-31.
23. Tett, R. & John P. 1993. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Turnover: Path Analyses Based on Meta-Analytic Findings. Personnel Psychology, 46 (2): 259–293. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00874.x (inactive 2009-01-21).
24. Tian-Foreman, W. 2007. Job satisfaction and turnover in the Chinese retail industry. Chinese Management Studies, 3(4), pp. 356-378
25. Watrous, K., Huffman, A. & Pritchard, R. 2006. When co-workers and managers quit: The effects of turnover and shared values on performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(1), pp. 103-126.
26. Williams, A. Potts, H. 2010. Group membership and staff turnover affect outcomes in group CBT for persistent pain. Pain, 148(3), 481-6
27. Zimmerman, R. & Darnold, T. 2007. The impact of job performance on employee turnover intentions and the voluntary turnover process. Personnel Review, 38(2), pp. 142-158.