The paper "The Decision-Making Process" is an outstanding example of a management assignment. The level of managers increases with the size of a business organisation and workforce. The three levels of managers include low-level managers, middle-level managers and top-level managers. The top-level managers have the responsibility of controlling and supervising the overall operations of an organisation and they include CEOs, vice-presidents and board of directors (Robbins et al. , 2006). The middle-level managers have the responsibility of executing plans which conform to the organisational policies and are intermediaries between top-level and low-level managers.
They include general managers and department managers (Robbins et al. , 2006). Low-level managers are responsible for directing and controlling and are role models for subordinates whom they supervise. Examples of these managers include supervisors and foremen. Question 2 The major functions of managers are categorised into four classes: planning, controlling, organising and leading (Samson, 2003). To start with, in planning, managers are supposed to create a comprehensive action plan that will assist in achieving the organisational goal. The activities that should be carried out with regard to planning include making decisions and evaluating the success of a plan.
In controlling, managers carry out an evaluation of results against set goals and activities in this regard include establishing performance standard and taking corrective actions. Organising involves determining the way to distribute resource and organise employees and the activities with this ready include delegation of authority and assigning work (Samson, 2003). Leading involves managers connecting with the followers on an interpersonal level. The activities carried out in leading include motivating and communicating. Question 3 Managers need three essential skills including technical skills; managers require to attain techniques and knowledge of a job he or she is responsible; human skills which are very essential when working with people on an individual and group level while conceptual skills entail the skills required by managers to think, see and conceptualise about complex situations (Robbins et al. , 2006).
The importance of personal skills varies from one level of management to another. However, the three personal skills generally are paramount elements needed in organisational performance (Samson, 2003. Examples of technical skills include management skills for engineers, human skills include controlling and decision-making skills while conceptual skill includes marketing skills. The business environment Question 4 The forces that affect the business organisation include technological forces, socio-cultural forces, global forces and economic forces.
With regard to socio-cultural forces, the compliance with together with an awareness of the values and beliefs of society can assist businesses to prepare for future and foreseen changes in the society is able to create either opportunities for or threats to a business organisation’ s growth (Samson, 2003). Economic forces influence demand for commodities and services together with costs of producing the e. g.
Inflation and tariffs. On the other hand, technological forces cover areas such as innovation, technological forecasting and invention. Technological forecasting monitors industry trends. Question 5 With regard to socio-cultural force, organisations are able to prepare for future and the changes in terms of beliefs, lifestyle and values affects the organisational growth such as quality of education, environmental awareness, crime levels etc. (Samson, 2003). on the other hand, economic forces such as inflation, exchange rates and interest influence the demand for commodities and the production cost. Such forces, even though they are external to a business influence the current operation and long-term sustainability of an organisation (Samson, 2003).
Ignoring them can be a detrimental mistake and thereby managers should continually monitor and adapt to these forces in order to create competitive advantage and avoid failure.
Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G., & Martin, D 2003, Management: A pacific rim focus, Enhanced Edn, McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd., North Ryde, NSW.
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 2008, Introduction to Business, Student Edition[pdf] Available at: http://www.ebookee.com/Introduction-to-Business-Student-Edition_461505.html [Accessed on 6th December, 2010]
Robbins, S., Bergman, R., Stagg, J. & Coulter, M 2006, Management, 4th Edn, Pearson Education Australia, French Forest, NSW.
Samson, D., Daft, L. R 2003, Management: Pacific rim edition, Nelson Australia Pty Ltd, Southbank Victoria.