Essays on Imperatives of Human Resource Practices in the New Millennium Literature review

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper “ Imperatives of Human Resource Practices in the New Millennium” is a meaningful example of the literature review on management. This paper aims to discuss the nuances of management and employees within an organization. It explores this by discussing one statement and addressing one major question. Management gets the employees it deserves is the statement to be discussed. It aims to discuss this statement through Douglas McGregor’ s Theory X and Y, by exploring two sides of the management. The question addresses how the management can ensure that it gets the employees it wants.

It elaborates on four strategies that management can adopt to ensure that it gets the employees it wants. References will be drawn from a series of sources such as databases, texts, books, and journals using the Harvard Referencing System. The statement, management gets the employees it deserves, can be explored and discussed form two angles based on Theory X and Theory Y developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s (ACCEL Team Development, Online). Through his theories he proposed two basic approaches in managing the workforce within an organization, both having a fundamental premise that the primary role of the management is to bring together the various factors of production, which includes people for the sake of economic benefit to the organization.

However, beyond the common premise, the theories are opposite in nature and diverge to convey different things (Business Balls, Online). Exploring Theory X, the management or leadership within the organization assumes that employees are fundamentally lazy, dislike work, and will avoid it if they can. Furthermore, it assumes that a majority of the employees are unaspiring, have no desire to accept responsibility, and like to be directed by their superiors.

Managers also assume that employees have little or no aptitude for creativity, are self-centered and hence do not care about organizational goals. Their motivation takes place only at security and psychological levels. And lastly, although they are assumed to be gullible and unintelligent they are also assumed to resist any change made in the organization (Envision Software Incorporated, Online). As a result of these assumptions Theory X managers also assume that the employees need to be directed, threatened with punishment, and forced to do work in order to achieve organizational objectives and goals.


ACCEL Team Development. Theory X and Theory Y. ACCEL Team Development. Retrieved 29 April, 2009.

Adebayo, A. (2001) Principles and Practice of Public Administration in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.

Bailyn, L (1993). Breaking the Mold – Women, Men and Time in the New Corporate World. New York: Pre-press.

Businessballs. Douglas McGregor’s Theory, Managing an X Theory Boss and William Ouchi’s Theory Z. Businessballs website. Retrieved 29 April 2009.

Cascio, W. F. (2003) Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, and Profits (6th edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill, Irwin.

Child, J T and Shumate, M (2009). The Impact of Communal Knowledge Repositories and People-Based Knowledge Management on Perceptions of Team effectiveness. Management Communication Quarterly 2007, 21; 29. SAGE Publications Limited.

Eaton, S C (2003). If You Can Use Them: Flexibility Policies, Organizational Commitment, and Perceived Performance. Industrial Relations Vol 42, No.2

Ejiofor, P. N. O. and A. U. Mbachu (2001) “Imperatives of Human Resource Practices in the New Millennium” Journal of the Management Sciences. Vol. 5. No. 1. January.

Envision Software Incorporated. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Retrieved 29 April 2009.

Fisher, K (1999). Leading Self-directed Work Teams: A Guide to Developing New Team Leadership Skills. McGraw-Hill Professional, 1999. p 102, 103

Gberevbie, D E (2008). Employee Retention Strategies and Organizational Performance. Department of Political Science, University of OTA.

Heap, L (2009). The Australian Charter of Employment Rights: Setting the Standard for New Legislation and Good Practice. Journal of Industrial Relations. SAGE publications Limited.

Hollingshead, A and Fulk, J and Monge, P (2002). Fostering Intranet Knowledge Sharing: An Integration of Transactive Memory and Pubic Good Approaches. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.

Holton, B. C., T. R. Mitchell, T. W. Lee, and E. J. Inderrienden (2005). “Shocks as Causes of Turnover: What They are and How Organizations can Manage Them.” Human Resource Management. Vol. 44. No. 3.

McGregor, Douglas(1960). Theory X and Theory Y. Workforce; Jan2002, Vol. 81 Issue 1, p32.

Rabin, J (2003). Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy. Marcel Dekker, 2003. p 711, 712

Schein, E H (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership. John Wiley and Sons, 2004. p 172 – 179

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us